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Mitochondria contain their own genome, the integrity of which is required for normal cellular energy metabolism. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by normal mitochondrial respiration can damage cellular macromolecules, including mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and have been implicated in degenerative diseases, cancer, and aging. We developed strategies to(More)
The removal of oxidative damage from Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA is thought to be conducted primarily through the base excision repair pathway. The Escherichia coli endonuclease III homologs Ntg1p and Ntg2p are S. cerevisiae N-glycosylase-associated apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) lyases that recognize a wide variety of damaged pyrimidines (H. J. You, R. L.(More)
The mitochondrial genome is a significant target of exogenous and endogenous genotoxic agents; however, the determinants that govern this susceptibility and the pathways available to resist mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage are not well characterized. Here we report that oxidative mtDNA damage is elevated in strains lacking Ntg1p, providing the first direct(More)
Abasic sites are thought to be the most frequently occurring cellular DNA damage and are generated spontaneously or as the result of chemical or radiation damage to DNA. In contrast to the wealth of information that exists on the effects of abasic sites on DNA polymerases, very little is known about how these lesions interact with RNA polymerases. An in(More)
We used a panel of isogenic Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains compromised in several different DNA damage-processing pathways to assess in vivo processing of DNA adducts induced by four cross-linking anticancer drugs. By examining cytotoxicity profiles, cell cycle arrest patterns, and determining recombination and mutation frequencies, we found that(More)
DNA base excision repair (BER) is initiated by DNA glycosylases that recognize and remove damaged bases. The phosphate backbone adjacent to the resulting apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site is then cleaved by an AP endonuclease or glycosylase-associated AP lyase to invoke subsequent BER steps. We have used a genetic approach in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated by endogenous and exogenous sources, cause significant damage to macromolecules, including DNA. To determine the cellular effects of induced, oxidative DNA damage, we established a relationship between specific oxidative DNA damage levels and biological consequences produced by acute H2O2 exposures in yeast strains(More)
Cisplatin is one of the most effective and widely used anticancer agents for the treatment of several types of tumors. The cytotoxic effect of cisplatin is thought to be mediated primarily by the generation of nuclear DNA adducts, which, if not repaired, cause cell death as a consequence of DNA replication and transcription blockage. However, the ability of(More)
Cells are exposed to both endogenous and exogenous sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS). At high levels, ROS can lead to impaired physiological function through cellular damage of DNA, proteins, lipids, and other macromolecules, which can lead to certain human pathologies including cancers, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular disease, as(More)