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Cerium dioxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) are increasingly being used as a catalyst in the automotive industry. Consequently, increasing amounts of CeO2 NPs are expected to enter the environment where their fate in and potential impacts are unknown. In this paper we describe the fate and effects of CeO2 NPs of three different sizes (14, 20, and 29 nm) in(More)
To date, (eco)toxicological information on industrial nanoparticles is very limited. In the present study, the hypothesis that the ecotoxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) is related to their surface area and not to their mass was tested using a freshwater green algal species. Particle diameter and morphology were assessed using light scattering and electron(More)
Although sophorolipids (SLs) produced by S. bombicola are a real showcase for the industrialization of microbial biosurfactants, some important drawbacks are associated with this efficient biological process, e.g., the simultaneous production of acidic and lactonic SLs. Depending on the application, there is a requirement for the naturally produced mixture(More)
To obtain a restoring and protective calcite layer on degraded limestone, five different strains of the Bacillus sphaericus group and one strain of Bacillus lentus were tested for their ureolytic driven calcium carbonate precipitation. Although all the Bacillus strains were capable of depositing calcium carbonate, differences occurred in the amount of(More)
It has been previously described that when a sample's particle size is determined using different sizing techniques, the results can differ considerably. The purpose of this study was to review several in-process techniques for particle size determination (Spatial Filtering Velocimetry, Focused Beam Reflectance Measurements, Photometric Stereo Imaging, and(More)
By using a quadratic model, an assessment was made of the relative importance of different sludge and polyelectrolyte variables with respect to sludge pressure dewatering. It was seen that the polyelectrolyte characteristics and dose dominated the cake dry matter content and that sludge properties were less important, especially the electrophoretic mobility(More)
In a previous study, biogenic silver nanoparticles were produced by Lactobacillus fermentum which served as a matrix preventing aggregation. In this study the antibacterial activity of this biogenic silver was compared to ionic silver and chemically produced nanosilver. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was tested on Gram-positive and Gram-negative(More)
A physical model is presented to simulate the average step length distribution during nanoparticle tracking analysis experiments as a function of the particle size distribution and the distribution of the number of steps within the tracks. Considering only tracks of at least five steps, numerical simulation could be replaced by a normal distribution(More)
Silica nanoparticles (NPs) belong to the industrially most important NP types. In a previous study it was shown that amorphous SiO(2) NPs of 12.5 and 27.0 nm are stable in algal growth inhibition assays and that their ecotoxic effects are related to NP surface area. Here, it was hypothesized and demonstrated that an alumina coating completely alters the(More)
The activated sludge floc size distribution (FSD) is investigated by using different techniques and the results are compared against each other in order to gain insight into the FSD characteristics, as well as to detect the limitations of each measurement technique. The experimental set-up consisted of three devices coupled in series: a MastersizerS, an(More)