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Traditionally, depictions and descriptions have been seen as complementary; depictions have been preferred to convey iconic or metaphorically iconic information whereas descriptions have been preferred for abstract information. Both are external representations designed to complement human memory and information processing. We have found the same underlying(More)
As Talmy has observed, language schematizes space; language provides a systematic framework to describe space, by selecting certain aspects of a referent scene while neglecting the others. Here, we consider the ways that space and the things in it are schematized in perception and cognition, as well as in language. We propose the Schematization Similarity(More)
forthcomming 2005, Journal of Visual Languages and Computing (JVLC), prefinal draft, pls quote original 2 Abstract. The emergent interest in ontological and conceptual approaches to modeling route information results from new information technologies as well as from a multidisciplinary interest in spatial cognition. Linguistics investigates verbal route(More)
Successful wayfinding requires accurate encoding of two types of information: landmarks and the spatial relations between them (e.g. landmark X is left/north of Y). Although both types of information are crucial to wayfinding, behavioral and neurological evidence suggest that they have different substrates. In this paper, we consider the nature of the(More)
Although considerations of discourse coherence and cognitive processing suggest that communicators should adopt consistent perspectives when describing spatial scenes, in many cases they switch perspectives. Ongoing research examining cognitive costs indicates that these are small and exacted in establishing a mental model of a scene but not in retrieving(More)
In producing diagrams for a variety of contexts, people use a small set of schematic figures to convey certain context specific concepts, where the forms themselves suggest meanings. These same schematic figures are interpreted appropriately in context. Three examples will support these conclusions: lines, crosses, and blobs in sketch maps; bars and lines(More)
This contribution reports on ongoing collaborative research at the University of Stanford, Department of Psychology, and the University of Hamburg, Department for Informatics. Extending the research on the effects of static vs. dynamic route presentation on perception and memory (Klippel et al., 2002), we examined different route presentation methods that(More)
An air/ground simulation of TrajectoryOriented Operations with Limited Delegation (TOOWiLD) was conducted at NASA Ames Research Center in September 2006. Four radarcertified air traffic control (ATC) specialists in the Airspace Operations Laboratory (AOL), eight glass cockpit pilots in the Flight Deck Display Research Laboratory (FDDRL), and additional(More)
Simulation research on three DAG-TM CEs— CE 5: En Route Free Maneuvering, CE 6: En Route Trajectory Negotiation, and CE 11: Terminal Arrival Self-Spacing—began in 2001 at the NASA Ames, Glenn, and Langley Research Centers [3-5]. It will continue through 2004, with regular simulation evaluations of the developing concepts, tools and procedures. Related prior(More)
An integrated air ground simulation with commercial airline pilots and certified professional controllers was conducted at NASA Ames Research Center to evaluate a concept for air-ground trajectory negotiation. This concept was developed as part of the Distributed Air-Ground Trajectory Negotiation Project, which explores use of new technology, including(More)