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forthcomming 2005, Journal of Visual Languages and Computing (JVLC), prefinal draft, pls quote original 2 Abstract. The emergent interest in ontological and conceptual approaches to modeling route information results from new information technologies as well as from a multidisciplinary interest in spatial cognition. Linguistics investigates verbal route(More)
Successful wayfinding requires accurate encoding of two types of information: landmarks and the spatial relations between them (e.g. landmark X is left/north of Y). Although both types of information are crucial to wayfinding, behavioral and neurological evidence suggest that they have different substrates. In this paper, we consider the nature of the(More)
In producing diagrams for a variety of contexts, people use a small set of schematic figures to convey certain context specific concepts , where the forms themselves suggest meanings. These same schematic figures are interpreted appropriately in context. Three examples will support these conclusions: lines, crosses, and blobs in sketch maps; bars and lines(More)
Although considerations of discourse coherence and cognitive processing suggest that communicators should adopt consistent perspectives when describing spatial scenes, in many cases they switch perspectives. Ongoing research examining cognitive costs indicates that these are small and exacted in establishing a mental model of a scene but not in retrieving(More)
Simulation research on three DAG-TM CEs— It will continue through 2004, with regular simulation evaluations of the developing concepts, tools and procedures. Related prior research is presented in [5-9]. This paper describes a simulation conducted at NASA Ames in September 2002 to explore the potential benefits and viability of our current implementation of(More)
Design consists of generating ideas and adapting them to users. Cognitive research can give insights into each of these processes. Here, we describe two projects involving sketches. Sketches are cognitive tools; they have many uses, among them: to promote inferences and new ideas; to organize and convey information. For the former, ambiguity is productive;(More)