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The involvement of dopamine receptor subtypes in the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine was evaluated by the ability of a series of compounds selective for D1 or D2 dopamine receptors to produce discriminative stimulus effects comparable to cocaine. Male, Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate 10 mg/kg of cocaine HCI from saline in a(More)
Twelve rats were trained to press one lever after cocaine injection (3 mg/kg i.p.) and another lever after saline injection. Once rats were reliably discriminating cocaine from saline, other drugs were examined for their efficacies in substituting for cocaine. The dopamine uptake inhibitors WIN 35,428(More)
Animal experiments and in vitro studies have shown that compounds found in tobacco smoke, such as polycyclic hydrocarbons, aromatic amines, and N-nitrosamines, may induce mammary tumors. The findings of smokingspecific DNA adducts and p53 gene mutations in the breast tissue of smokers also support the biological plausibility of a positive association(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the effect of smoking on breast cancer risk in a large population-based cohort of women, many of whom started smoking as teenagers. METHODS We followed 102,098 women, ages 30 to 50 years, completing a mailed questionnaire at recruitment to the Norwegian-Swedish Cohort Study in 1991/1992, through December 2000. We used Cox proportional(More)
A number of prospective cohort studies have examined the relations of individual dietary variables to risk of colorectal cancer. Few studies have addressed the broader eating patterns that reflect many dietary exposures working together. Using data from a prospective study of 61,463 women, with an average follow-up period of 9.6 years (between 1987 and(More)
BACKGROUND Studies in animals have suggested that calcium may reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. However, results from epidemiologic studies of intake of calcium or dairy foods and colorectal cancer risk have been inconclusive. METHODS We pooled the primary data from 10 cohort studies in five countries that assessed usual dietary intake by using a(More)
BACKGROUND Several large studies of obesity and colorectal cancer risk have found no association among women but a reasonably consistent positive association among men. In women, a positive association that is stronger among, or limited to, those who are premenopausal has been suggested by studies that stratified analyses by age, although no previous study(More)
Defining dietary patterns by factor analysis is an alternative approach to dietary assessment that has been used recently to examine diet-disease relations. However, only 1 study evaluated the reproducibility and validity of this method. Our aim was to assess both the validity and reproducibility of major dietary patterns based on data from a 60-item FFQ.(More)
Obesity increases the risk of certain cancer types, e.g., cancer of the endometrium, colon and gallbladder. For some other cancer forms, e.g., prostate cancer, the association is less clear. We examined the association between body mass index (BMI) and hormone-dependent tumors, utilizing a cohort of 21,884 Swedish twins born during 1886-1925. Information(More)