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Whole-genome sequencing of the protozoan pathogen Trypanosoma cruzi revealed that the diploid genome contains a predicted 22,570 proteins encoded by genes, of which 12,570 represent allelic pairs. Over 50% of the genome consists of repeated sequences, such as retrotransposons and genes for large families of surface molecules, which include trans-sialidases,(More)
All eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms are thought to synthesize fatty acids using a type I or type II synthase. In addition, eukaryotes extend pre-existing long chain fatty acids using microsomal elongases (ELOs). We have found that Trypanosoma brucei, a eukaryotic human parasite that causes sleeping sickness, uses three elongases instead of type I or(More)
Kinetoplast DNA (kDNA), the mitochondrial DNA of Crithidia fasciculata and related trypanosomatids, is a network containing approximately 5,000 covalently closed minicircles which are topologically interlocked. kDNA synthesis involves release of covalently closed minicircles from the network, and, after replication of the free minicircles, reattachment of(More)
Kinetoplast DNA, the mitochondrial DNA of Crithidia fasciculata, is organized into a network containing 5,000 topologically interlocked minicircles. This network, situated within the mitochondrial matrix, is condensed into a disk-shaped structure located near the basal body of the flagellum. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that before their(More)
ATP-dependent protease complexes are present in all living organisms, including the 26S proteasome in eukaryotes, Archaea, and Actinomycetales, and the HslVU protease in eubacteria. The structure of HslVU protease resembles that of the 26S proteasome, and the simultaneous presence of both proteases in one organism was deemed unlikely. However, HslVU(More)
611 615 619 623 629 636 648 652 660 666 671 CONTENTS* MINIREVIEW 678 Biosynthesis of glycosyl phosphatidylinositol membrane anchors. COMMUNICATIONS 685 cz2f11 integrins from different cell types show different binding specificities. Corresponding oscillations in neutrophil shape and filamentous actin content. 690 700 ARTICLES Cloning and expression of a rat(More)
Kinetoplast DNA, the mitochondrial DNA of trypanosomatid parasites, is a network containing several thousand minicircles and a few dozen maxicircles. We compared kinetoplast DNA replication in Trypanosoma brucei and Crithidia fasciculata using fluorescence in situ hybridization and electron microscopy of isolated networks. One difference is in the location(More)
Introduced in the 1950s, ethidium bromide (EB) is still used as an anti-trypanosomal drug for African cattle although its mechanism of killing has been unclear and controversial. EB has long been known to cause loss of the mitochondrial genome, named kinetoplast DNA (kDNA), a giant network of interlocked minicircles and maxicircles. However, the existence(More)
Kinetoplast DNA (kDNA), the trypanosome mitochondrial genome, is a giant network containing several thousand interlocked DNA rings. Within the mitochondrion, kDNA is condensed into a disk-shaped structure positioned near the flagellar basal body. The disk is linked to the basal body by a remarkable transmembrane filament system named the tripartite(More)
After synthesis on membrane-bound ribosomes, the variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) of Trypanosoma brucei is modified by: (a) removal of an N-terminal signal sequence, (b) addition of N-linked oligosaccharides, and (c) replacement of a C-terminal hydrophobic peptide with a complex glycolipid that serves as a membrane anchor. Based on pulse-chase experiments(More)