Paul T. Englund

Learn More
Whole-genome sequencing of the protozoan pathogen Trypanosoma cruzi revealed that the diploid genome contains a predicted 22,570 proteins encoded by genes, of which 12,570 represent allelic pairs. Over 50% of the genome consists of repeated sequences, such as retrotransposons and genes for large families of surface molecules, which include trans-sialidases,(More)
RNA interference is a powerful method for inhibition of gene expression in Trypanosoma brucei (Ngo, H., Tschudi, C., Gull, K., and Ullu, E. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 95, 14687-14692). Here we describe a vector (pZJM) for in vivo tetracycline-inducible synthesis of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in stably transformed cells. The dsRNA is synthesized(More)
Kinetoplast DNA is a network of interlocked minicircles and maxicircles. In situ hybridization, using probes detected by digital fluorescence microscopy, has clarified the in vivo structure and replication mechanism of the network. The probe recognizes only nicked minicircles. Hybridization reveals prereplication kinetoplasts (with closed minicircles),(More)
One of the most fascinating and unusual features of trypanosomatids, parasites that cause disease in many tropical countries, is their mitochondrial DNA. This genome, known as kinetoplast DNA (kDNA), is organized as a single, massive DNA network formed of interlocked DNA rings. In this review, we discuss recent studies on kDNA structure and replication,(More)
RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool for identifying gene function in Trypanosoma brucei. We generated an RNAi library, the first of its kind in any organism, by ligation of genomic fragments into the vector pZJMbeta. After transfection at approximately 5-fold genome coverage, trypanosomes were induced to express double-stranded RNA and screened for(More)
Kinetoplastid protozoa such as trypanosomes and Leishmania are important because they cause human disease. These parasites are named after one of their most unusual features, a mitochondrial DNA known as kinetoplast DNA (kDNA). Unlike all other DNA in nature, kDNA comprises a giant network of interlocked DNA rings with a topology resembling that of medieval(More)
The trypanosome variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) is anchored to the plasma membrane via a glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI). The GPI is synthesized as a precursor, glycolipid A, that is subsequently linked to the VSG polypeptide. The VSG anchor is unusual, compared with anchors in other cell types, in that its fatty acid moieties are exclusively(More)
The mitochondrial DNA of trypanosomatid protozoa, termed kinetoplast DNA (kDNA), is unique in its structure, function, and mode of replication. kDNA is a massive network, composed of thousands of topologically interlocked DNA circles, which resembles the chain mail of medieval armor. Each cell contains one network condensed into a disk-shaped structure(More)
All eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms are thought to synthesize fatty acids using a type I or type II synthase. In addition, eukaryotes extend pre-existing long chain fatty acids using microsomal elongases (ELOs). We have found that Trypanosoma brucei, a eukaryotic human parasite that causes sleeping sickness, uses three elongases instead of type I or(More)