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Whole-genome sequencing of the protozoan pathogen Trypanosoma cruzi revealed that the diploid genome contains a predicted 22,570 proteins encoded by genes, of which 12,570 represent allelic pairs. Over 50% of the genome consists of repeated sequences, such as retrotransposons and genes for large families of surface molecules, which include trans-sialidases,(More)
Kinetoplast DNA is a network of interlocked minicircles and maxicircles. In situ hybridization, using probes detected by digital fluorescence microscopy, has clarified the in vivo structure and replication mechanism of the network. The probe recognizes only nicked minicircles. Hybridization reveals prereplication kinetoplasts (with closed minicircles),(More)
All eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms are thought to synthesize fatty acids using a type I or type II synthase. In addition, eukaryotes extend pre-existing long chain fatty acids using microsomal elongases (ELOs). We have found that Trypanosoma brucei, a eukaryotic human parasite that causes sleeping sickness, uses three elongases instead of type I or(More)
Kinetoplast DNA (kDNA), the trypanosomatid mitochondrial DNA, is a network containing several thousand interlocked minicircles. During kDNA synthesis, minicircles dissociate from the network, and after replication their progeny reattach to the network periphery. Using electron microscopy autoradiography, we found that newly synthesized 3H-labeled(More)
African trypanosomes, the cause of sleeping sickness, need massive amounts of myristate to remodel glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors on their surface glycoproteins. However, it has been believed that the parasite is unable to synthesize any fatty acids, and myristate is not abundant in the hosts' bloodstreams. Thus, it has been unclear how(More)
Kinetoplast DNA (kDNA), the mitochondrial DNA of Crithidia fasciculata and related trypanosomatids, is a network containing approximately 5,000 covalently closed minicircles which are topologically interlocked. kDNA synthesis involves release of covalently closed minicircles from the network, and, after replication of the free minicircles, reattachment of(More)
The trypanosome variant surface glycoprotein (VSG), like many other eukaryotic cell surface proteins, is anchored to the plasma membrane by a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) moiety. This glycolipid is assembled first as a precursor (glycolipid A) that is then covalently attached to the newly synthesized polypeptide. We have developed a trypanosome(More)
A group of proteins anchored to the cell by phosphatidylinositol (PI) has recently been identified. The significance of this new class of membrane anchor is unknown; one possibility is that it facilitates release of the molecule by phospholipases. In fact, phospholipase C enzymes specific for the complex carboxyl-terminal glycolipids of these proteins have(More)
Kinetoplast DNA, the mitochondrial DNA of Crithidia fasciculata, is organized into a network containing 5,000 topologically interlocked minicircles. This network, situated within the mitochondrial matrix, is condensed into a disk-shaped structure located near the basal body of the flagellum. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that before their(More)
ATP-dependent protease complexes are present in all living organisms, including the 26S proteasome in eukaryotes, Archaea, and Actinomycetales, and the HslVU protease in eubacteria. The structure of HslVU protease resembles that of the 26S proteasome, and the simultaneous presence of both proteases in one organism was deemed unlikely. However, HslVU(More)