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We explored the transformations accompanying the transmission of odor information from the first-order processing area, the antennal lobe, to the mushroom body, a higher-order integration center in the insect brain. Using Ca2+ imaging, we recorded activity in the dendrites of the projection neurons that connect the antennal lobe with the mushroom body.(More)
The insect mushroom bodies are higher-order brain centers and critical for odor learning. We investigated experience dependent plasticity of their intrinsic neurons, the Kenyon cells (KCs). Using calcium imaging, we recorded KC responses and investigated non-associative plasticity by applying repeated odor stimuli. Associative plasticity was examined by(More)
We investigated the effect of associative learning on early sensory processing, by combining classical conditioning with in vivo calcium-imaging of secondary olfactory neurons, the projection neurons (PNs) in the honey bee antennal lobe (AL). We trained bees in a differential conditioning paradigm in which one odour (A+) was paired with a reward, while(More)
An important component in understanding central olfactory processing and coding in the insect brain relates to the characterization of the functional divisions between morphologically distinct types of projection neurons (PN). Using calcium imaging, we investigated how the identity, concentration and mixtures of odors are represented in axon terminals(More)
Airborne odorants rarely occur as pure, isolated stimuli. In a natural environment, odorants that intermingle from multiple sources create mixtures in which the onset and offset of odor components are asynchronous. Odor mixtures are known to elicit interactions in both behavioral and physiological responses, changing the perceptive quality of mixtures(More)
Trace conditioning is a form of classical conditioning, where a neutral stimulus (conditioned stimulus, CS) is associated with a following appetitive or aversive stimulus (unconditioned stimulus, US). Unlike classical delay conditioning, in trace conditioning there is a stimulus-free gap between CS and US, and thus a poststimulus neural representation(More)
Memory is created by several interlinked processes in the brain, some of which require long-term gene regulation. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely candidates for regulating memory-related genes. Among these, DNA methylation is known to be a long lasting genomic mark and may be involved in the establishment of long-term memory. Here we demonstrate that DNA(More)
The neural representation of a sensory stimulus evolves with time, and animals keep that representation even after stimulus cessation (i.e., a stimulus "trace"). To contrast the memories of an odor and an odor trace, we here establish a rigorous trace conditioning paradigm in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. We modify the olfactory associative(More)
Segregating objects from background, and determining which of many concurrent stimuli belong to the same object, remains one of the most challenging unsolved problems both in neuroscience and in technical applications. While this phenomenon has been investigated in depth in vision and audition it has hardly been investigated in olfaction. We found that for(More)