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Endotoxin tolerance is a well-studied phenomenon associated with a reduced inflammatory response. In the switch from an inflammatory to an anti-inflammatory response in clinical sepsis, the concept of endotoxin tolerance is of obvious interest. However, only limited data exist regarding the effect of endotoxin tolerance on organ dysfunction, and therefore,(More)
Endotoxin tolerance (ET), defined as reduced inflammatory responsiveness to endotoxin challenge following a first encounter with endotoxin, is an extensively studied phenomenon. Although reduced mortality and morbidity in the presence of ET has been demonstrated in animal studies, little is known about the temporal development of ET. Further, in acute(More)
This study aimed to determine whether the addition of an aminoglycoside to a ß-lactam antibiotic increases the antimicrobial effect during the early phase of Gram-negative severe sepsis/septic shock. A porcine model was selected that considered each animal's individual blood bactericidal capacity. Escherichia coli, susceptible to both antibiotics, was given(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS The Global Initiative Against Asthma (GINA) was developed to meet the global challenge of asthma. GINA has been adopted in most countries and comparison of asthma management in different parts of the world may be of help when assessing the global dissemination of the guideline. The overall goals in GINA include that asthma patients(More)
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