Paul Sherwood

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The most widely used oxide for photocatalytic applications owing to its low cost and high activity is TiO2. The discovery of the photolysis of water on the surface of TiO2 in 19721 launched four decades of intensive research into the underlying chemical and physical processes involved2–5. Despite much collected evidence, a thoroughly convincing explanation(More)
The approach used to calculate the two-electron integral by many electronic structure packages including generalized atomic and molecular electronic structure system-UK has been designed for CPU-based compute units. We redesigned the two-electron compute algorithm for acceleration on a graphical processing unit (GPU). We report the acceleration strategy and(More)
Algorithmic improvements of the dimer method [G. Henkelman and H. Jonsson, J. Chem. Phys. 111, 7010 (1999)] are described in this paper. Using the limited memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (L-BFGS) optimizer for the dimer translation greatly improves the convergence compared to the previously used conjugate gradient algorithm. It also saves one energy(More)
In this article we review the key modeling tools available for simulating biomolecular systems. We consider recent developments and representative applications of mixed quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM), elastic network models (ENMs), coarse-grained molecular dynamics, and grid-based tools for calculating interactions between essentially rigid(More)
c © 2000 by John von Neumann Institute for Computing Permission to make digital or hard copies of portions of this work for personal or classroom use is granted provided that the copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. To copy otherwise requires prior(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether abnormal results for liver function tests are investigated in primary care and findings on full investigation. DESIGN Retrospective audit and prospective clinical investigation. SETTING University hospital and surrounding general practices serving around 330 000 people. SUBJECTS Adults with abnormal results for liver(More)
The formation of water in the interstellar medium from hydrogen and oxygen atoms on a pristine olivine surface (forsterite (010)) is investigated with an embedded cluster approach. The 55-atom quantum cluster is described at the density functional level while the remaining 1629 atoms of the surface cluster are described with atomistic potentials. Transition(More)
Increasingly, understanding complex problems in computational chemistry requires the use of several applications as components of computational workflows. Unfortunately, this process is severely hindered by a lack of data interchange standards. The eCCP and eMinerals UK eScience projects are developing a framework to facilitate the interoperability of such(More)
Density Functional Theory calculations are reported on cage structured BN, AlN, GaN and InN sub- and low nanosize stoichiometric clusters, including two octahedral families of T(d) and T(h) symmetry. The structures and energetics are determined, and we observe that BN clusters in particular show high stability with respect to the bulk phase. The cluster(More)
We have investigated intrinsic point defects in ZnO and extended this study to Li, Cu and Al impurity centres. Atomic and electronic structures as well as defect energies have been obtained for the main oxidation states of all defects using our embedded cluster hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical approach to the treatment of localised states in(More)