Paul Sharples

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Current systems used in education follow a consistent design pattern, one that is not supportive of lifelong learning or personalization, is asymmetric in terms of user capability, and which is disconnected from the global ecology of Internet services. In this paper we propose an alternative design pattern for educational systems that emphasizes symmetric(More)
One of the issues for the Personal Learning Environment is the integration of personal tools with institution-centric information and services such as timetable information, and the coordination of cohort-specific group activities. One potential solution is the use of widgets – small, single-function applications that can be used in different applications,(More)
Can widget technologies revolutionize the VLE and challenge the dominant design of elearning? The authors describe an experimental implementation of the Moodle VLE using the W3C Widget specification and Google Wave Gadget API to replace existing core features. This raises four challenges; (1) By replacing most of the functionality of the VLE with simple(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare standing head posture measurements between patients with nontraumatic neck pain (NP) and pain-free individuals. DESIGN Single-blind (assessor) cross-sectional study. SETTING Hospital and general community. PARTICIPANTS Consecutive patients (n=40) with chronic nontraumatic NP and age- and sex-matched pain-free participants (n=40).(More)
Recent average annual catches of sharks by tuna longline vessels fishing in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) are estimated to be between 1583 and 2274 t. Although 22 shark species have been recorded by the observer programme for this fishery, 80% of the annual catch comprises only five species: blue shark Prionace glauca, silky shark Carcharhinus(More)
IMS Learning Designs provide a specification for the activities undertaken by learners within an environment; currently the definition of the environment is typically a set of web resources and files, with the potential to add two basic types of tool: conferencing and mail. In this paper we describe our initial findings on using a lightweight approach to(More)
Despite several efforts for simplifying the composition process, learning efforts required for using existing mashup editors to develop mashups remain still high. In this paper, we describe how this barrier can be lowered by means of an <i>assisted development</i> approach that seamlessly integrates automatic composition and interactive pattern(More)
There is a mismatch between the enthusiasm of policy makers and other actors for initiatives to support the validation of informal learning, and the lack of adoption of systems in practice. This problem is explored, with reference to the creation of the Informal Learning Collector in the European Commission TRAILER project. It is proposed that formality in(More)