Arthropod transmission of tularemia occurs throughout the northern hemisphere. Few pathogens show the adaptability of Francisella tularensis to such a wide array of arthropod vectors. Nonetheless, arthropod transmission of F. tularensis was last actively investigated in the first half of the 20th century. This review will focus on arthropod transmission to… (More)
The larvae of Glaucopsyche lygdamus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) secrete substances that attract ants. In two field sites in Colorado, tending ants protect caterpillars of G. lygdamus from attack by braconid and tachinid parasitoids. This protection may have been an important feature in the evolution of the association between lycaenid larvae and ants.
PROBLEM/CONDITION Lyme disease is a multisystem disease that occurs in North America, Europe, and Asia. In the United States, the etiologic agent is Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, a spirochete transmitted to humans by infected Ixodes scapularis and I. pacificus ticks. The majority of patients with Lyme disease develop a characteristic rash, erythema… (More)
Tularemia in the United States is caused by 2 subspecies of Francisella tularensis, subspecies tularensis (type A) and subspecies holarctica (type B). We compared clinical and demographic features of human tularemia cases from 1964 to 2004 from 39 states in which an isolate was recovered and subtyped. Our data indicate that type A and type B infections… (More)
Efforts to prevent foodborne illness target bacterial pathogens, yet noroviruses (NoV) are suspected to be the most common cause of gastroenteritis. New molecular assays allow for better estimation of the role of NoV in foodborne illness. We analyzed 8,271 foodborne outbreaks reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1991 to 2000 and… (More)
As part of a fatal human plague case investigation, we showed that the plague bacterium, Yersinia pestis, can survive for at least 24 days in contaminated soil under natural conditions. These results have implications for defining plague foci, persistence, transmission, and bioremediation after a natural or intentional exposure to Y. pestis.
BACKGROUND Sequence analysis of the regulators of complement activation (RCA) cluster of genes at chromosome position 1q32 shows evidence of several large genomic duplications. These duplications have resulted in a high degree of sequence identity between the gene for factor H (CFH) and the genes for the five factor H-related proteins (CFHL1-5; aliases… (More)
Bartonella spp. infection has been reported in association with an expanding spectrum of symptoms and lesions. Among 296 patients examined by a rheumatologist, prevalence of antibodies against Bartonella henselae, B. koehlerae, or B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (185 [62%]) and Bartonella spp. bacteremia (122 [41.1%]) was high. Conditions diagnosed before… (More)
In the summer of 1998, a large outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections occurred in Alpine, Wyoming. We identified 157 ill persons; stool from 71 (45%) yielded E. coli O157:H7. In two cohort studies, illness was significantly associated with drinking municipal water (town residents: adjusted odds ratio=10.1, 95% confidence intervals [CI]=1.8-56.4;… (More)
Letters ceftriaxone and convenience of outpatient paren-teral therapy, this antibiotic was continued to complete a 10-day course. On extensive questioning, the patient denied contact with any cat, dog, or other animal. He had recently traveled to Nigeria but denied even transient animal contact. Since 1966, three cases of P. multocida epi-glottitis have… (More)