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PROBLEM/CONDITION Lyme disease is a multisystem disease that occurs in North America, Europe, and Asia. In the United States, the etiologic agent is Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, a spirochete transmitted to humans by infected Ixodes scapularis and I. pacificus ticks. The majority of patients with Lyme disease develop a characteristic rash, erythema(More)
Escherichia coli O157 was first identified as a human pathogen in 1982. One of several Shiga toxin-producing serotypes known to cause human illness, the organism probably evolved through horizontal acquisition of genes for Shiga toxins and other virulence factors. E. coli O157 is found regularly in the faeces of healthy cattle, and is transmitted to humans(More)
Address for correspondence: Paul S. Mead, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Mail Stop A38, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA; fax: 404-639-2205; e-mail: pfm0@cdc.gov. More than 200 known diseases are transmitted through food (1). The causes of foodborne illness include viruses, bacteria,(More)
To calculate the burden of 2009 pandemic influenza A (pH1N1) in the United States, we extrapolated from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Emerging Infections Program laboratory-confirmed hospitalizations across the entire United States, and then corrected for underreporting. From 12 April 2009 to 10 April 2010, we estimate that approximately(More)
From the Departments of Family Medicine and Pediatrics, Connecticut Children’s Medical Center, Hartford, and University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington (H.M.F.); Microbiology Laboratory, Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO (B.J.B.J.); Lyme Borreliosis Unit, Health Protection(More)
BACKGROUND Laboratory testing is helpful when evaluating patients with suspected Lyme disease (LD). A 2-tiered antibody testing approach is recommended, but single-tier and nonvalidated tests are also used. We conducted a survey of large commercial laboratories in the United States to assess laboratory practices. We used these data to estimate the cost of(More)
BACKGROUND In the United States, tularemia is caused by Francisella tularensis subsps. tularensis (type A) and holarctica (type B). Molecular subtyping has further divided type A into 2 subpopulations, A1 and A2. Significant mortality differences were previously identified between human infections caused by A1 (14%), A2 (0%) and type B (7%). To verify these(More)
We evaluated risk factors for sporadic Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection among children in Argentina. We conducted a prospective case-control study in 2 sites and enrolled 150 case-patients and 299 controls. The median age of case-patients was 1.8 years; 58% were girls. Serotype O157:H7 was the most commonly isolated STEC. Exposures(More)
Efforts to prevent foodborne illness target bacterial pathogens, yet noroviruses (NoV) are suspected to be the most common cause of gastroenteritis. New molecular assays allow for better estimation of the role of NoV in foodborne illness. We analyzed 8,271 foodborne outbreaks reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1991 to 2000 and(More)
After reports of microcephaly and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in infants of mothers infected with Zika virus during pregnancy, CDC issued a travel alert on January 15, 2016, advising pregnant women to consider postponing travel to areas with active transmission of Zika virus. On January 19, CDC released interim guidelines for U.S. health care providers(More)