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More than 200 known diseases are transmitted through food (1). The causes of foodborne illness include viruses, bacteria, parasites, toxins, metals, and prions, and the symptoms of foodborne illness range from mild gastroenteritis to life-threatening neurologic, hepatic, and renal syndromes. In the United States, foodborne diseases have been estimated to(More)
PROBLEM/CONDITION Lyme disease is a multisystem disease that occurs in North America, Europe, and Asia. In the United States, the etiologic agent is Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, a spirochete transmitted to humans by infected Ixodes scapularis and I. pacificus ticks. The majority of patients with Lyme disease develop a characteristic rash, erythema(More)
Escherichia coli O157 was first identified as a human pathogen in 1982. One of several Shiga toxin-producing serotypes known to cause human illness, the organism probably evolved through horizontal acquisition of genes for Shiga toxins and other virulence factors. E. coli O157 is found regularly in the faeces of healthy cattle, and is transmitted to humans(More)
To calculate the burden of 2009 pandemic influenza A (pH1N1) in the United States, we extrapolated from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Emerging Infections Program laboratory-confirmed hospitalizations across the entire United States, and then corrected for underreporting. From 12 April 2009 to 10 April 2010, we estimate that approximately(More)
Tularemia in the United States is caused by 2 subspecies of Francisella tularensis, subspecies tularensis (type A) and subspecies holarctica (type B). We compared clinical and demographic features of human tularemia cases from 1964 to 2004 from 39 states in which an isolate was recovered and subtyped. Our data indicate that type A and type B infections(More)
After reports of microcephaly and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in infants of mothers infected with Zika virus during pregnancy, CDC issued a travel alert on January 15, 2016, advising pregnant women to consider postponing travel to areas with active transmission of Zika virus. On January 19, CDC released interim guidelines for U.S. health care providers(More)
Arthropod transmission of tularemia occurs throughout the northern hemisphere. Few pathogens show the adaptability of Francisella tularensis to such a wide array of arthropod vectors. Nonetheless, arthropod transmission of F. tularensis was last actively investigated in the first half of the 20th century. This review will focus on arthropod transmission to(More)
To monitor risk factors for illness, we conducted a case-control study of sporadic Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 (STEC O157) infections in 1999-2000. Laboratory-confirmed cases of STEC O157 infection were identified through active laboratory surveillance in all or part of seven states. Patients and age-matched controls were interviewed by(More)
Cat-scratch disease, flea-borne typhus, and plague are three flea-associated zoonoses of cats of concern in the USA. Although flea concentrations may be heaviest in coastal and temperate climates, fleas and flea-borne disease agents can occur almost anywhere in the USA. Understanding flea-borne pathogens, and the associated risks for owners and(More)
BACKGROUND In the United States, tularemia is caused by Francisella tularensis subsps. tularensis (type A) and holarctica (type B). Molecular subtyping has further divided type A into 2 subpopulations, A1 and A2. Significant mortality differences were previously identified between human infections caused by A1 (14%), A2 (0%) and type B (7%). To verify these(More)