Paul S. Hoffman

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When Legionella pneumophila grows in HeLa cells, it alternates between a replicative form and a morphologically distinct "cyst-like" form termed MIF (mature intracellular form). MIFs are also formed in natural amoebic hosts and to a lesser extent in macrophages, but they do not develop in vitro. Since MIFs accumulate at the end of each growth cycle, we(More)
Helicobacter pylori, an oxygen-sensitive microaerophile, contains an alkyl hydroperoxide reductase homologue (AhpC, HP1563) that is more closely related to 2-Cys peroxiredoxins of higher organisms than to most other eubacterial AhpC proteins. Allelic replacement mutagenesis revealed ahpC to be essential, suggesting a critical role for AhpC in defending H.(More)
The location of Helicobacter pylori in the gastric mucosa of mammals is defined by natural pH gradients within the gastric mucus, which are more alkaline proximal to the mucosal epithelial cells and more acidic toward the lumen. We have used a microscope slide-based pH gradient assay and video data collection system to document pH-tactic behavior. In(More)
Metronidazole (Mtz) is a critical component of combination therapies that are used against Helicobacter pylori, the major cause of peptic ulcer disease. Many H. pylori strains are Mtz resistant (MtzR), however, and here we show that MtzR results from loss of oxygen-insensitive NADPH nitroreductase activity. The underlying gene (called 'rdxA') was identified(More)
A study of the electron transport chain of the human intestinal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni revealed a rich complement of b- and c-type cytochromes. Two c-type cytochromes were partially purified: one, possibly an oxidase, bound carbon monoxide whereas the other, of high potential was unreactive with carbon monoxide. Respiratory activities determined with(More)
A comparative genomic approach was used to identify Helicobacter pylori 26695 open reading frames (ORFs) which are conserved in H. pylori J99 but highly diverged in other eubacteria. A survey of selected pathways of central intermediary metabolism was also carried out, and genes with a potentially selective role in H. pylori were identified. Forty-five ORFs(More)
The microaerophilic nature of Campylobacter fetus has complicated its recovery from human and animal sources. In this study, modifications of brucella agar and broth were tested for enhancement of growth and aerotolerance of 64 strains of C. fetus, representing each subspecies. Brucella agar supplemented with 0.025% each FeSO4 7H2O, sodium metabisulfite,(More)
The relative importance of the frxA and rdxA nitroreductase genes of Helicobacter pylori in metronidazole (MTZ) susceptibility and resistance has been controversial. Jeong et al. (J. Bacteriol. 182:5082--5090, 2000) had interpreted that Mtz(s) H. pylori were of two types: type I, requiring only inactivation of rdxA to became resistant, and type II,(More)
Nitazoxanide (NTZ) exhibits broad-spectrum activity against anaerobic bacteria and parasites and the ulcer-causing pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Here we show that NTZ is a noncompetitive inhibitor (K(i), 2 to 10 microM) of the pyruvate:ferredoxin/flavodoxin oxidoreductases (PFORs) of Trichomonas vaginalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia intestinalis,(More)