Paul S. Freemont

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PML is a component of a multiprotein complex, termed nuclear bodies, and the PML protein was originally discovered in patients suffering from acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL). APL is associated with a reciprocal chromosomal translocation of chromosomes 15 and 17, which results in a fusion protein comprising PML and the retinoic acid receptor alpha. The(More)
The RING finger is a zinc-binding domain that is found in proteins from plants to humans, but whose function remains largely enigmatic. The domain itself is distinct from other zinc-finger motifs in terms of sequence homology, zinc-ligation scheme and three-dimensional structure. It appears that the RING is involved in mediating protein-protein interactions(More)
At least two distinct ATPases, NSF and p97, are known to be involved in the heterotypic fusion of transport vesicles with their target membranes and the homotypic fusion of membrane compartments. The NSF-mediated fusion pathway is the best characterized, many of the components having been identified and their functions analysed. In contrast, none of the(More)
The tumor-suppressive promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has served as one of the defining components of a class of distinctive nuclear bodies (NBs). PML is delocalized from NBs in APL cells and is degraded in cells infected by several viruses. In these cells, NBs are disrupted, leading to the aberrant localization of(More)
The Polycomb group (PcG) complex is a chromatin-associated multiprotein complex, involved in the stable repression of homeotic gene activity in Drosophila. Recently, a mammalian PcG complex has been identified with several PcG proteins implicated in the regulation of Hox gene expression. Although the mammalian PcG complex appears analogous to the complex in(More)
p97, an abundant hexameric ATPase of the AAA family, is involved in homotypic membrane fusion. It is thought to disassemble SNARE complexes formed during the process of membrane fusion. Here, we report two structures: a crystal structure of the N-terminal and D1 ATPase domains of murine p97 at 2.9 A resolution, and a cryoelectron microscopy structure of(More)
The Polycomb (Pc) protein is a component of a multimeric, chromatin-associated Polycomb group (PcG) protein complex, which is involved in stable repression of gene activity. The identities of components of the PcG protein complex are largely unknown. In a two-hybrid screen with a vertebrate Pc homolog as a target, we identify the human RING1 protein as(More)
The structure of the major human apurinic/ apyrimidinic endonuclease (HAP1) has been solved at 2.2 A resolution. The enzyme consists of two symmetrically related domains of similar topology and has significant structural similarity to both bovine DNase I and its Escherichia coli homologue exonuclease III (EXOIII). A structural comparison of these enzymes(More)
Ubiquitination targets proteins for degradation and is a potent regulator of cellular protein function. Recent results implicate the RING finger domain in specific ubiquitination events; it is possible that all RING proteins act as E3 ubiquitin protein ligases, with implications for a variety of biological areas.
PML is a nuclear phosphoprotein that was first identified as part of a translocated chromosomal fusion product associated with acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL). PML localises to distinct nuclear multi-protein complexes termed ND10, Kr bodies, PML nuclear bodies and PML oncogenic domains (PODs), which are disrupted in APL and are the targets for immediate(More)