Paul S. Engel

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Novel, injectable, biodegradable macromer solutions that form hydrogels when elevated to physiologic temperature via a dual chemical and thermo-gelation were fabricated and characterized. A thermogelling, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-based macromer with pendant phosphate groups was synthesized and subsequently functionalized with chemically cross-linkable(More)
The photocross-linking of poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) to form porous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications was investigated. PPF was cross-linked using the photoinitiator bis(2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl) phenylphosphine oxide (BAPO) and exposure to 30 min of long wavelength ultraviolet (UV) light. The porous photocross-linked PPF scaffolds (6.5(More)
Injectable, biodegradable, dual-gelling macromer solutions were used to encapsulate mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) within stable hydrogels when elevated to physiologic temperature. Pendant phosphate groups were incorporated in the N-isopropyl acrylamide-based macromers to improve biointegration and facilitate hydrogel degradation. The MSCs were shown to(More)
A novel hydrogel system based on oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) (OPF) is currently being investigated as an injectable carrier for marrow stromal cells (MSCs) for orthopedic tissue engineering applications. This hydrogel is cross-linked using the redox radical initiators ammonium persulfate (APS) and ascorbic acid (AA). In this study, two different(More)
Synthetic biodegradable polymers offer an alternative to the use of autografts, allografts, and nondegradable materials for bone replacement. They can be synthesized with tailored mechanical and degradative properties. They also can be processed to porous scaffolds with desired pore morphologic features conducive to tissue ingrowth. Moreover, functionalized(More)
To synthesize high molecular weight poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF), fumaryl chloride and propylene glycol were reacted in the presence of potassium carbonate, which serves as a proton scavenger. Transesterification of the resulting low molecular weight oligomer led to a polymer with greater molecular weight than those from previous reaction methods without(More)
Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) individually dispersed in surfactants leads to diameter and type-selective photohydroxylation of the nanotubes. Photohydroxylation of first semiconductor and then small diameter metallic SWCNTs was confirmed after 254 nm UV irradiation in acidic, neutral, and basic aqueous solutions at(More)
Diethyl fumarate and propylene glycol were reacted in the presence of a zinc chloride catalyst to synthesize poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) over a period of 12 hours. The kinetics of the transesterification polymerization at 130 degrees C, 150 degrees C, and 200 degrees C were determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analysis. The initial rate of(More)
Four tert-butylazocumenes (4-7) were prepared from the corresponding cyanobenzenes, and their nitrogen evolution kinetics and products were analyzed. In combination with TEMPO, the simplest compound, tert-butylazocumene (4), shows promise as a "one-radical" initiator of styrene polymerization. The ABNO-trapped cumyl radical 29 is a particularly stable(More)