Paul S Cremer

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The development of pest resistance threatens the effectiveness of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins used in transgenic and organic farming. Here, we demonstrate that (i) the major mechanism for Bt toxin resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans entails a loss of glycolipid carbohydrates; (ii) Bt toxin directly and specifically binds glycolipids; and (iii) this(More)
Sensory systems use a variety of membrane-bound receptors, including responsive ion channels, to discriminate between a multitude of stimuli. Here we describe how engineered membrane pores can be used to make rapid and sensitive biosensors with potential applications that range from the detection of biological warfare agents to pharmaceutical screening.(More)
The lipid bilayer is one of the most eloquent and important self-assembled structures in nature. It not only provides a protective container for cells and sub-cellular compartments, but also hosts much of the machinery for cellular communication and transport across the cell membrane. Solid supported lipid bilayers provide an excellent model system for(More)
The Hofmeister series, first noted in 1888, ranks the relative influence of ions on the physical behavior of a wide variety of aqueous processes ranging from colloidal assembly to protein folding. Originally, it was thought that an ion's influence on macromolecular properties was caused at least in part by 'making' or 'breaking' bulk water structure. Recent(More)
The present studies explore multivalent ligand-receptor interactions between pentameric cholera toxin B subunits (CTB) and the corresponding membrane ligand, ganglioside GM1. CTB binding was monitored on supported phospholipid bilayers coated on the walls and floors of microfluidic channels. Measurements were made by total internal reflection fluorescence(More)
We have developed a microfluidic assay for bacterial chemotaxis in which a gradient of chemoeffectors is established inside a microchannel via diffusion between parallel streams of liquid in laminar flow. The random motility and chemotactic responses to L-aspartate, L-serine, L-leucine, and Ni(2+) of WT and chemotactic-mutant strains of Escherichia coli(More)
The study of the interactions of salts and osmolytes with macromolecules in aqueous solution originated with experiments concerning protein precipitation more than 100 years ago. Today, these solutes are known to display recurring behavior for myriad biological and chemical processes. Such behavior depends both on the nature and concentration of the species(More)
The molecular level details of the displacement of surface adsorbed fibrinogen from silica substrates were studied by atomic force microscopy, immunochemical assays, fluorescence microscopy, and vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy. The results showed that human plasma fibrinogen (HPF) can be readily displaced from the interface by other plasma proteins(More)
This paper describes a reusable platform that can apply a linear temperature gradient to a lab-on-a-chip device. When a planar microfluidic device with a series of microchannels is placed on top of the platform with the channels perpendicular to the gradient, each channel is held at a discrete temperature. This allows temperature-dependent data for chemical(More)