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Automatic prostate segmentation in ultrasound images is a challenging task due to speckle noise, missing boundary segments, and complex prostate anatomy. One popular approach has been the use of deformable models. For such techniques, prior knowledge of the prostate shape plays an important role in automating model initialization and constraining model(More)
In order to perform intra-operative or post-implant dosimetry in prostate brachytherapy, the 3D coordinates of the implanted radioactive seeds must be determined. Film or fluoroscopy based seed reconstruction techniques use back projection of x-ray data obtained at two or three x-ray positions. These methods, however, do not perform well when some of the(More)
For accurate prediction of normal tissue tolerance, it is important that the volumetric information of dose distribution be considered. However, in dosimetric optimization of intensity modulated beams, the dose-volume factor is usually neglected. In this paper we describe two methods of volume-dependent optimization for intensity modulated beams such as(More)
Intra-operative dosimetry in prostate brachytherapy requires 3D coordinates of the implanted, radioactive seeds. Since CT is not readily available during the implant operation, projection x-rays are commonly used for intra-operative seed localization. Three x-ray projections are usually used. The requirement of the current seed reconstruction algorithms is(More)
Prostate brachytherapy quality assessment procedure should be performed while the patient is still on the operating table since this would enable physicians to implant additional seeds immediately into the prostate if necessary thus reducing the costs and increasing patient outcome. Seed placement procedure is readily performed under fluoroscopy and(More)
The multileaf collimator (MLC) hardware constraints are usually neglected in the process of intensity-modulated beam optimization. Consequently, it is not always possible to deliver planned beam modulation using dynamic MLC. Beam optimization is significantly diminished if the results must be approximated due to limitations imposed by the delivery device.(More)
Automated segmentation of medical reports can significantly enhance the productivity of the healthcare departments. While many algorithms have been developed for document summarization, passage retrieval, and story segmentation of news feeds, much less effort has been devoted to parsing of medical documents. We present an algorithm specifically developed(More)
Permanent implantation of radioactive seeds is a viable and effective therapeutic option widely used today for early stage prostate cancer. In order to perform intraoperative dosimetry the seed locations must be determined accurately with high efficiency. However, the task of seed segmentation is often hampered by the wide range of signal-to-noise ratios(More)
Conventional 3D dose calculations for stereotactic radiosurgery involve integration of individual static beams comprising a set of arcs. For iterative optimization of multiple isocentre treatment, which requires repetitive dose calculations at a large number of sample points, the conventional method is too slow. To overcome this problem spherically(More)
We describe a new class of optimization method based on the theory of alternating projections onto convex sets (POCS). The technique is applied to the problem of intensity modulated beam optimization in conformal radiotherapy. The results of test cases are compared with those from a well established method of simulated annealing. The theory of POCS is due(More)