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Automatic prostate segmentation in ultrasound images is a challenging task due to speckle noise, missing boundary segments, and complex prostate anatomy. One popular approach has been the use of deformable models. For such techniques, prior knowledge of the prostate shape plays an important role in automating model initialization and constraining model(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-fluoroscopy fusion-based intraoperative dosimetry system. METHOD AND MATERIALS Twenty-five patients were treated for prostate cancer with Pd-103 implantation. After the execution of the treatment plan, two sets of TRUS images were collected using the longitudinal and axial transducers of a biplanar(More)
Clinical implementation of cone-beam tomography has been hampered by the lack of two-dimensional electronic x-ray detectors that can encompass the full width of the body. We encountered the undersized detector problem in our development of a cone-beam CT system for radiotherapy applications. In order to mitigate the problem, we developed an algorithm which(More)
The multileaf collimator (MLC) hardware constraints are usually neglected in the process of intensity-modulated beam optimization. Consequently, it is not always possible to deliver planned beam modulation using dynamic MLC. Beam optimization is significantly diminished if the results must be approximated due to limitations imposed by the delivery device.(More)
In order to perform intra-operative or post-implant dosimetry in prostate brachytherapy, the 3D coordinates of the implanted radioactive seeds must be determined. Film or fluoroscopy based seed reconstruction techniques use back projection of x-ray data obtained at two or three x-ray positions. These methods, however, do not perform well when some of the(More)
PURPOSE To investigate the feasibility of performing postimplant and intraoperative dosimetry for prostate brachytherapy by fusing transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) and fluoroscopic data. METHODS AND MATERIALS Registration of ultrasound (prostate boundary) and fluoroscopic (seed) data requires spatial markers that are detectable by both imaging modalities. In(More)
For accurate prediction of normal tissue tolerance, it is important that the volumetric information of dose distribution be considered. However, in dosimetric optimization of intensity modulated beams, the dose-volume factor is usually neglected. In this paper we describe two methods of volume-dependent optimization for intensity modulated beams such as(More)
A fast method of seed matching and reconstruction in prostate brachytherapy is proposed. Previous approaches have required all seeds to be matched with all other seeds in other projections. The fast cross-projection algorithm for the reconstruction of seeds (Fast-CARS) allows for matching of a given seed with a subset of seeds in other projections. This(More)
Accurately assessing the quality of prostate brachytherapy intraoperatively would be valuable for improved clinical outcome by ensuring the delivery of a prescribed tumoricidal radiation dose to the entire prostate gland. One necessary step towards this goal is the robust and rapid localization of implanted seeds. Several methods have been developed to(More)
Intra-operative dosimetry in prostate brachytherapy requires 3D coordinates of the implanted, radioactive seeds. Since CT is not readily available during the implant operation, projection x-rays are commonly used for intra-operative seed localization. Three x-ray projections are usually used. The requirement of the current seed reconstruction algorithms is(More)