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BACKGROUND Spinosad is a mixture of novel macrolide secondary metabolites produced by Saccharopolyspora spinosa. It is used in agriculture as a potent insect control agent with exceptional safety to non-target organisms. The cloning of the spinosyn biosynthetic gene cluster provides the starting materials for the molecular genetic manipulation of spinosad(More)
p-Nitrobenzyl esters serve as protecting groups on intermediates in the manufacture of clinically important oral beta-lactam antibiotics; de-esterification of the intermediates is required for synthesis of the final product. A Bacillus subtilis PNB carboxy-esterase (PNBCE) catalyzes hydrolysis of several beta-lactam antibiotic PNB esters to the(More)
  • B Ni, X Wu, +6 authors S M Paul
  • 1997
Several members of the IL-1beta-converting enzyme (ICE) family of proteases recently have been implicated in the intracellular cascade mediating the apoptotic death of various cell types. It is unclear, however, whether ICE-related proteases are involved in apoptosis of mammalian neurons and, if so, how they are activated. Here we report the cloning of an(More)
We have isolated a brain-specific cDNA that encodes a Na(+)-dependent inorganic phosphate (Pi) cotransporter (BNPI). The nucleotide sequence of BNPI predicts a protein of 560 amino acids with 6-8 putative transmembrane-spanning segments that is approximately 32% identical to the rabbit kidney Na(+)-dependent Pi cotransporter. Expression of BNPI mRNA in(More)
Streptococcus pneumoniae is among the most significant causes of bacterial disease in humans. Here we report the 2,038,615-bp genomic sequence of the gram-positive bacterium S. pneumoniae R6. Because the R6 strain is avirulent and, more importantly, because it is readily transformed with DNA from homologous species and many heterologous species, it is the(More)
The first step in oral absorption of many medically important peptide-based drugs is mediated by an intestinal proton-dependent peptide transporter. This transporter facilitates the oral absorption of beta-lactam antibiotics and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors from the intestine into enterocytes lining the luminal wall. A monoclonal antibody that(More)
Cloning and expression in a stable mammalian cell line co-transfected with a glutamate transporter (RGT cells) were used as tools for studying the functions and pharmacological properties of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). Complementary DNAs (cDNAs) encoding the human mGluR4, human mGluR7, and human mGluR8 were isolated from human(More)
We have previously identified a 10.5-kilobase DNA sequence which is highly amplified and tandemly repeated in the mutant Streptomyces fradiae JS85. A library of DNA was prepared from S. fradiae T776, which does not contain amplified DNA. The library was screened by plaque hybridization to identify phage clones containing the unamplified 10.5-kilobase DNA(More)
Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) belongs to the family of gut-neuropeptide hormones which also includes glucagon, secretin and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). All receptors for this peptide hormone family seem to involve similar signal transduction pathways. Upon hormone binding, these receptors interact with guanine nucleotide binding protein(More)