Paul Roberts

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Epidemic C. difficile (027/BI/NAP1) has rapidly emerged in the past decade as the leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea worldwide. However, the key events in evolutionary history leading to its emergence and the subsequent patterns of global spread remain unknown. Here, we define the global population structure of C. difficile 027/BI/NAP1 using(More)
BACKGROUND Community-associated Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) appears to be an increasing problem. Reported carriage rates by C. difficile are debatable with suggestions that primary asymptomatic carriage is associated with decreased risk of subsequent diarrhoea. However, knowledge of potential reservoirs and intestinal carriage rates in the(More)
BACKGROUND Nasopharyngeal carriage of potential pathogens is important as it is both the major source of transmission and the prerequisite of invasive disease. New methods for detecting carriage could improve comfort, accuracy and laboratory utility. The aims of this study were to compare the sensitivities of a nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) and a nasal wash(More)
Quantitative measurements of the epidural space between T-7 and L-4 were made in the sagittal and coronal planes utilizing x-ray films made after the injection of iodized oil into the epidural space in the low thoracic and upper lumbar areas. These data reveal a 1-mm ventral epidural space and a 2-mm lateral epidural space, with a sawtooth shape to the(More)
—There is a growing interest in using underwater net-worked systems for oceanographic applications. These networks often rely on acoustic communication, which poses a number of challenges for reliable data transmission. The underwater acoustic channel is highly variable; each link can experience a vastly conditions, which change according to environmental(More)
Measurement of both calprotectin and lactoferrin in faeces has successfully been used to discriminate between functional and inflammatory bowel conditions, but evidence is limited for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). We prospectively recruited a cohort of 164 CDI cases and 52 controls with antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD). Information on disease(More)
BACKGROUND Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) plays a key role in the activation of the lectin-complement pathway of innate immunity, and its deficiency has been linked with several acute infections. However, its role in predisposing to, or modulating disease severity in, Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has not been investigated. METHODS We prospectively(More)
BACKGROUND Pulse wave velocity (PWV), a measure of arterial stiffness, has been demonstrated to be an independent predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. This can be derived non-invasively using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). Changes in PWV during exercise may reveal further information on vascular pathology. However, most known CMR methods(More)
The retina confers upon us the gift of vision, enabling us to perceive the world in a manner unparalleled by any other tissue. Experimental and clinical studies have provided great insight into the physiology and biochemistry of the retina; however, there are questions which cannot be answered using these methods alone. Mathematical and computational(More)