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The propensity score is the conditional probability of assignment to a particular treatment given a vector of observed covariates. Both large and small sample theory show that adjustment for theâ€¦ (More)

- Paul R. Rosenbaum
- Biometrics
- 2013

In an observational study, one treated subject may be matched for observed covariates to either one or several untreated controls. The common motivation for using several controls rather than one isâ€¦ (More)

- Marshall M. Joffe, Paul R. Rosenbaum
- American journal of epidemiology
- 1999

The propensity score is the conditional probability of exposure to a treatment given observed covariates. In a cohort study, matching or stratifying treated and control subjects on a single variable,â€¦ (More)

In a randomized experiment, the investigator creates a clear and relatively unambiguous comparison of treatment groups by exerting tight control over the assignment of treatments to experimentalâ€¦ (More)

By slightly reframing the concept of covariance adjustment in randomized experiments, a method of exact permutation inference is derived that is entirely free of distributional assumptions and usesâ€¦ (More)

An instrument or instrumental variable manipulates a treatment and affects the outcome only indirectly through its manipulation of the treatment. For instance, encouragement to exercise mightâ€¦ (More)

- Paul R. Rosenbaum, Donald B. Rubin
- Biometrics
- 1985

Observational studies comparing groups of treated and control units are often used to estimate the effects caused by treatments. Matching is a method for sampling a large reservoir of potentialâ€¦ (More)

A new test is proposed comparing two multivariate distributions by using distances between observations. Unlike earlier tests using interpoint distances, the new test statistic has a known exactâ€¦ (More)

- Bo Lu, Elaine L. Zanutto, Robert C Hornik, Paul R. Rosenbaum
- Journal of the American Statistical Association
- 2001

Multivariate matching with doses of treatment differs from the treatment-control matching in three ways. First, pairs must not only balance covariates, but also must differ markedly in dose. Second,â€¦ (More)

- Paul R. Rosenbaum, Jeffrey H. Silber
- Journal of the American Statistical Association
- 2009

A sensitivity analysis displays the increase in uncertainty that attends an inference when a key assumption is relaxed. In matched observational studies of treatment effects, a key assumption in someâ€¦ (More)