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The transactivation properties of the two estrogen receptors, ERalpha and ERbeta, were examined with different ligands in the context of an estrogen response element and an AP1 element. ERalpha and ERbeta were shown to signal in opposite ways when complexed with the natural hormone estradiol from an AP1 site: with ERalpha, 17beta-estradiol activated(More)
Estrogen receptor (ER) binds to estrogen response elements in target genes and recruits a coactivator complex of CBP-pl60 that mediates stimulation of transcription. ER also activates transcription at AP-1 sites that bind the Jun/Fos transcription factors, but not ER. We review the evidence regarding mechanisms whereby ER increases the activity of Jun/Fos(More)
We find that tamoxifen is a potent activator of estrogen receptor (ER)- mediated induction of promoters regulated by AP-1 sites including the human collagenase gene promoter and constructs in which an AP-1 site is fused to the herpes thymidine kinase promoter. This contrasts with the inability of tamoxifen to activate otherwise identical promoters bearing(More)
Estrogen receptors (ERs alpha and beta) enhance transcription in response to estrogens by binding to estrogen response elements (EREs) within target genes and utilizing transactivation functions (AF-1 and AF-2) to recruit p160 coactivator proteins. The ERs also enhance transcription in response to estrogens and antiestrogens by modulating the activity of(More)
We describe the biological properties of NVP-AUY922, a novel resorcinylic isoxazole amide heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitor. NVP-AUY922 potently inhibits HSP90 (K(d) = 1.7 nmol/L) and proliferation of human tumor cells with GI(50) values of approximately 2 to 40 nmol/L, inducing G(1)-G(2) arrest and apoptosis. Activity is independent of(More)
Adipose-resident T cells (ARTs) regulate metabolic and inflammatory responses in obesity, but ART activation signals are poorly understood. Here, we describe class II major histocompatibility complex (MHCII) as an important component of high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Microarray analysis of primary adipocytes revealed that multiple genes involved in(More)
Estrogen receptor-alpha contains two transactivation functions, a weak constitutive activation function (AF-1) and a hormone-dependent activation function (AF-2). AF-2 works by recruiting a large coactivator complex, composed of one or more p160s, CREB-binding protein (CBP)/p300, and P/CAF (p300 and CBP-associated factor), via direct contacts with the(More)
Estrogen receptors (ER) have been localized to the cell plasma membrane (PM), where signal transduction mediates some estradiol (E2) actions. However, the precise structural features of ER that result in membrane localization have not been determined. We obtained a partial tryptic peptide/mass spectrometry analysis of membrane mouse ERalpha protein. Based(More)
Many pathogens colonize different anatomical sites, but the selective pressures contributing to survival in the diverse niches are poorly understood. Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a human-adapted bacterium that causes a range of infections. Much effort has been expended to dissect the molecular basis of invasive (sterile-site) infections, but little is(More)
This study examines tissues from sequential-kill, time-course pathogenesis studies to refine estimates of the age at which disease-specific PrP (PrP(Sc)) can first be detected in the central nervous system (CNS) and related peripheral nervous system ganglia of cattle incubating bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Such estimates are important for risk(More)