Paul R. Wade

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The peristaltic reflex can be evoked in the absence of input from the CNS because the responsible neural pathways are intrinsic to the intestine. Mucosal enterochromaffin cells have been postulated to be pressure transducers, which activate the intrinsic sensory neurons that initiate the reflex by secreting 5-HT. All of the criteria necessary to establish(More)
BACKGROUND Subsets of myenteric neurons have been identified. To determine the proportional representation of neurons in each, it is necessary to relate the number of neurons in the subset to that of the complete set. Prior estimates of total numbers of neurons, obtained with many different markers, have varied widely. METHODS Markers were compared for(More)
Studies of the guinea pig small intestine have suggested that serotonin (5-HT) may be a mucosal transmitter that stimulates sensory nerves and initiates peristaltic and secretory reflexes. We tested the hypothesis that guinea pig villus epithelial cells are able to inactivate 5-HT because they express the same 5-HT transporter as serotonergic neurons. A(More)
Mu-opioid analgesics are a mainstay in the treatment of acute and chronic pain of multiple origins, but their side effects, such as constipation, respiratory depression, and abuse liability, adversely affect patients. The recent demonstration of the up-regulation and membrane targeting of the delta-opioid receptor (DOR) following inflammation and the(More)
Megacolon occurs in neonatal and adult transgenic mice that overexpress the Hoxa-4 gene. Abnormalities, which are restricted to the terminal colon of these mice, include a hypoganglionosis, abnormal enteric ganglia with a structure appropriate for extra-enteric peripheral nerve and not the enteric nervous system (ENS), and gaps in the longitudinal muscle(More)
BACKGROUND & PURPOSE Loperamide is a selective µ opioid receptor agonist acting locally in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract as an effective anti-diarrhoeal but can cause constipation. We tested whether modulating µ opioid receptor agonism with δ opioid receptor antagonism, by combining reference compounds or using a novel compound ('MuDelta'), could(More)
5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors have been analyzed and related to potential roles played by 5-HT in the physiology of the enteric nervous system (ENS). Three subtypes of 5-HT receptor--5-HT1P, 5-HT3, and 5-HT1A--have been found on enteric neurons. Receptors have been identified by intracellularly recording the electrical activity of enteric neurons and(More)
  • Paul R. Wade
  • American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal…
  • 2002
As we enter the 21st century, the segment of the population that is the most rapidly expanding is that comprised of individuals 85 yr of age and older. Dysfunctions of the gastrointestinal (GI) system, including dysphagia, constipation, diarrhea, and irritable bowel syndrome are more common complaints of the elderly, yet our knowledge of the aging GI tract(More)
Many individuals experience gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction more frequently as they age, and the segment of the human population that is growing the most rapidly is the 'oldest old', who are >/= 80 years old. There has recently been renewed interest in the age-related changes intrinsic to the gut, and these investigations may help physicians understand(More)
The effects of anti-idiotypic antibodies (alpha-id) that recognize serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] receptors on myenteric neurons of the guinea pig small intestine were characterized electrophysiologically, and alpha-id binding sites were located immunocytochemically. Initial applications of the alpha-id mimicked each of three actions of 5-HT: a(More)