Paul R. Krehbiel

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PAUL R. KREHBIEL1*, JEREMY A. RIOUSSET2*, VICTOR P. PASKO2, RONALD J. THOMAS3, WILLIAM RISON3, MARK A. STANLEY4 AND HARALD E. EDENS1 Physics Department, New Mexico Tech, Socorro, New Mexico 87801, USA CSSL Laboratory, Penn State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA Electrical Engineering Department, New Mexico Tech, Socorro, New Mexico(More)
A GPS-based system has been developed that accurately locates the sources of VHF radiation from lightning discharges in three spatial dimensions and time. The observations are found to re ect the basic charge structure of electri ed storms. Observations have also been obtained of a distinct type of energetic discharge referred to as positive bipolar(More)
Three-dimensional lightning mapping observations have been used to estimate the peak source powers radiated by individual VHF events of lightning discharges. The peak powers vary from minimum locatable values of about 1 W typically up to 10-30 kW or more in the 60-66 MHz passband of the receivers. An energetic positive bipolar event radiated in excess of(More)
[1] Using three-dimensional lightning mapping observations, the initial leaders of intracloud flashes have been found to start at a median speed of about 1.6 10 m s 1 and to decelerate during the first 10–15 ms of the discharge. The results disagree with the predictions that the speed should increase with time as the developing leader shorts out an(More)
[1] The temporal and spatial development of sprite-producing lightning flashes is examined with coordinated observations over an asymmetric mesoscale convective system (MCS) on 29 June 2011 near the Oklahoma LightningMappingArray (LMA). Sprites produced by a total of 26 lightning flashes were observed simultaneously on video from Bennett, Colorado and(More)
Probucol is known to prolong QT intervals in some patients and to produce fatal arrhythmias in selected animal species. To assess the prevalence and clinical relevance of this effect in a controlled manner, we analyzed electrocardiograms (ECGs) and medical events in patients during a placebo-controlled crossover trial comparing single or combined(More)
[1] A two-dimensional axisymmetric model of charge relaxation in the conducting atmosphere is used in conjunction with a probabilistic lightning model to demonstrate how realistic cloud electrodynamics lead to the development of blue and gigantic jets. The model accounts for time-dependent conduction currents and screening charges formed under the influence(More)
[1] In situ electric field (E) measurements and inferred lightning initiation locations of three cloud-to-ground flashes are used to identify a thunderstorm region in which the preflash E exceeded the threshold for runaway breakdown. The maximum measured E in the region was 186 kV m 1 at 5.77 km altitude, which for runaway electrons is equivalent to 370 kV(More)
Pyrocumulus clouds above three Colorado wildfires (Hewlett Gulch, High Park, and Waldo Canyon; all during the summer of 2012) electrified and produced localized intracloud discharges whenever the smoke plumes grew above 10km MSL (approximately 2458C). Vertical development occurred during periods of rapid wildfire growth, as indicated by the shortwave(More)
A database consisting of approximately 4000 storm observations has been objectively analyzed to determine environmental characteristics that produce high radar reflectivities above the freezing level, large total lightning flash rates on the order of 10 flashes min−1 and anomalous vertical charge structures (most notably, dominant mid-level positive(More)