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Preclinical studies of gestational cocaine exposure (GCE) show evidence of changes in brain function at the anatomical, physiological, and behavioral levels, to include effects on developing dopaminergic systems. In contrast, human studies have produced less consistent results, with most showing small effects or no effects on developmental outcomes.(More)
OBJECTIVE Sleep deprivation is associated with increased risk of adult type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It is uncertain whether sleep deprivation and/or altered sleep architecture affects glycemic regulation or insulin sensitivity or secretion. We hypothesized that in obese adolescents, sleep disturbances would associate with altered glucose and insulin(More)
PURPOSE This study examines electroencephalographic (EEG) changes in children with medication resistant epilepsy treated with the ketogenic diet (KD). METHODS Routine EEGs were obtained prior to KD initiation, then one month and three months later. Changes in EEG background slowing and frequency of interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) were evaluated(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine if hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia predicts the response to a ketogenic diet (KD) in a cohort of children with intractable epilepsy. We evaluated whether morning blood glucose during the initial 21 days after initiation of the KD in children with IE was related to seizure reduction after 3 months of treatment. The(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE PET scanning with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) is a non-invasive method that measures regional glucose metabolic rate. Phenylalanine (Phe) and its metabolites appear to impair several aspects of brain energy metabolism. 1) To evaluate brain glucose metabolism with FDG-PET imaging in phenylketonuria (PKU) patients before and 4 months(More)
Rapid eye movement sleep distribution changes during development, but little is known about rapid eye movement latency variation in childhood by age, sex, or pathologic sleep states. We hypothesized that: (1) rapid eye movement latency would differ in normal children by age, with a younger cohort (1-10 years) demonstrating shorter rapid eye movement latency(More)
AIMS To examine the effect of a single dose of human synthetic secretin (HSS) on behaviour and communication in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using an objective measure of communication and social reciprocity and standardised rating scales. METHODS Randomised, crossover, double blind, and placebo controlled trial of a single intravenous(More)
RATIONALE Children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) have impaired cortical processing of respiratory afferent stimuli, manifested by blunted sleep respiratory-related evoked potentials (RREP). However, whether this impairment is limited to respiratory stimuli, or reversible after successful treatment, is unknown. We hypothesized that, during(More)
Infants with congenital hyperinsulinism owing to inactivating mutations in the K(ATP) channel (K(ATP)HI) who are unresponsive to medical therapy will require pancreatectomy to control the hypoglycemia. In preclinical studies, we showed that the GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin-(9-39) suppresses insulin secretion and corrects fasting hypoglycemia in(More)
The gamma-amino-butyric acid type A receptors (GABAAR) are a heteropentameric receptor complex, composed of 16 possible subunits in various combinations, forming a ligand-gated ion channel. Subunit composition is the primary determinant of GABAAR physiology and pharmacology. Here we have measured mRNA levels for 16 GABAAR subunits in isolated dentate(More)