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Selenocysteine is incorporated into at least 25 human proteins by a complex mechanism that is a unique modification of canonical translation elongation. Selenocysteine incorporation requires the concerted action of a kink-turn structural RNA (SECIS) element in the 3' untranslated region of each selenoprotein mRNA, a selenocysteine-specific translation(More)
BACKGROUND The co-translational incorporation of selenocysteine into nascent polypeptides by recoding the UGA stop codon occurs in all domains of life. In eukaryotes, this event requires at least three specific factors: SECIS binding protein 2 (SBP2), a specific translation elongation factor (eEFSec), selenocysteinyl tRNA, and a cis-acting selenocysteine(More)
Protein synthesis is a complex cellular process that is regulated at many levels. For example, global translation can be inhibited at the initiation phase or the elongation phase by a variety of cellular stresses such as amino acid starvation or growth factor withdrawal. Alternatively, translation of individual mRNAs can be regulated by mRNA localization or(More)
This review focuses on the known factors required for selenocysteine (Sec) incorporation in eukaryotes and highlights recent findings that have compelled us to propose a new model for the mechanism of Sec incorporation. In light of this data we also review the controversial aspects of the previous model specifically regarding the proposed interaction(More)
The amino acid selenocysteine (Sec) is encoded by UGA codons. Recoding of UGA from stop to Sec requires a Sec insertion sequence (SECIS) element in the 3' UTR of selenoprotein mRNAs. SECIS binding protein 2 (SBP2) binds the SECIS element and is essential for Sec incorporation into the nascent peptide. SBP2-like (SBP2L) is a paralogue of SBP2 in vertebrates(More)
Selenocysteine (Sec) is a critical residue in at least 25 human proteins that are essential for antioxidant defense and redox signaling in cells. Sec is inserted into proteins cotranslationally by the recoding of an in-frame UGA termination codon to a Sec codon. In eukaryotes, this recoding event requires several specialized factors, including a dedicated,(More)
Selenocysteine is the only proteinogenic amino acid encoded by a recoded in-frame UGA codon that does not operate as the canonical opal stop codon. A specialized translation elongation factor, eEFSec in eukaryotes and SelB in prokaryotes, promotes selenocysteine incorporation into selenoproteins by a still poorly understood mechanism. Our structural and(More)
OBJECTIVE This study examined the effect of adjunctive intranasal insulin therapy on psychopathology and cognition in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS Each subject had a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and been on stable antipsychotics for at least 1 month.(More)
OBJECTIVE This study examined the effect of adjunctive intranasal insulin therapy on body metabolism in patients with schizophrenia. METHOD Each subject had a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and had been on stable dose of antipsychotic agent for at least one month. In an 8-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled(More)