Paul R. Chalker

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The effects of long-term exposure to aluminium on the development of Alzheimer-type neuropathological changes have been studied post-mortem in patients with chronic renal failure who did not have dialysis encephalopathy. Administration of aluminium-containing phosphate binding compounds appears to be a major factor in the accumulation of aluminium in the(More)
In this report, we present a prototype design of a quadrupole mass filter (QMF) with hyperbolic electrodes, fabricated at the University of Liverpool using digital light processing (DLP), a low-cost and lightweight 3D rapid prototyping (RP) technique. Experimental mass spectra are shown for H(2)(+), D(2)(+), and He(+) ions to provide proof of principle that(More)
La-doped zirconia films, deposited by ALD at 300°C, were found to be amorphous with dielectric constants (k-values) up to 19. A tetragonal or cubic phase was induced by post-deposition annealing (PDA) at 900°C in both nitrogen and air. Higher k-values (~32) were measured following PDA in air, but not after PDA in nitrogen. However, a significant dielectric(More)
Flash memory is the most widely used non-volatile memory device nowadays. In order to keep up with the demand for increased memory capacities, flash memory has been continuously scaled to smaller and smaller dimensions. The main benefits of down-scaling cell size and increasing integration are that they enable lower manufacturing cost as well as higher(More)
Thin films of ceria (CeO(2)) have many applications, and their synthesis by liquid-injection MOCVD (metal-organic chemical vapor deposition) or ALD (atomic layer deposition) requires volatile precursor compounds. Here we report the synthesis of a series of homoleptic and heteroleptic Ce(IV) complexes with donor-functionalized alkoxide ligands mmp(More)
Frequency dispersion of high-k dielectrics was observed and classified into two parts: extrinsic cause and intrinsic cause. Frequency dependence of dielectric constant (dielectric relaxation), that is the intrinsic frequency dispersion, could not be characterized before considering the effects of extrinsic frequency dispersion. Several mathematical models(More)
Cerium oxide (CeO2) thin films used liquid injection atomic layer deposition (ALD) for deposition and ALD procedures were run at substrate temperatures of 150°C, 200°C, 250°C, 300°C, and 350°C, respectively. CeO2 were grown on n-Si(100) wafers. Variations in the grain sizes of the samples are governed by the deposition temperature and have been estimated(More)
A powerful characterization technique, pulse capacitance-voltage (CV) technique, was used to investigate oxide traps before and after annealing for lanthanide zirconium oxide thin films deposited on n-type Si (111) substrates at 300 °C by liquid injection Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD). The results indicated that: (1) more traps were observed compared to the(More)
Oxide materials with large dielectric constants (so-called high-k dielectrics) have attracted much attention due to their potential use as gate dielectrics in Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFETs). A novel characterization (pulse capacitance-voltage) method was proposed in detail. The pulse capacitance-voltage technique was employed(More)