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The 14-3-3 family of proteins mediates signal transduction by binding to phosphoserine-containing proteins. Using phosphoserine-oriented peptide libraries to probe all mammalian and yeast 14-3-3s, we identified two different binding motifs, RSXpSXP and RXY/FXpSXP, present in nearly all known 14-3-3 binding proteins. The crystal structure of 14-3-3zeta(More)
The X-ray structure of the ternary complex of a calcineurin A fragment, calcineurin B, FKBP12, and the immunosuppressant drug FK506 (also known as tacrolimus) has been determined at 2.5 A resolution, providing a description of how FK506 functions at the atomic level. In the structure, the FKBP12-FK506 binary complex does not contact the phosphatase active(More)
BACKGROUND Hepatitis C virus (HCV) represents a major health concern as it is responsible for a significant number of hepatitis cases worldwide. Much research has focused on the replicative enzymes of HCV as possible targets for more effective therapeutic agents. HCV NS3 helicase may provide one such suitable target. Helicases are enzymes which can unwind(More)
Members of the Flaviviridae encode a serine proteinase termed NS3 that is responsible for processing at several sites in the viral polyproteins. In this report, we show that the NS3 proteinase of the pestivirus bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) (NADL strain) is required for processing at nonstructural (NS) protein sites 3/4A, 4A/4B, 4B/5A, and 5A/5B but(More)
The structure of inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) in complex with IMP and mycophenolic acid (MPA) has been determined by X-ray diffraction. IMPDH plays a central role in B and T lymphocyte replication. MPA is a potent IMPDH inhibitor and the active metabolite of an immunosuppressive drug recently approved for the treatment of allograft(More)
p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase is activated by environmental stress and cytokines and plays a role in transcriptional regulation and inflammatory responses. The crystal structure of the apo, unphosphorylated form of p38 kinase has been solved at 2.3 A resolution. The fold and topology of p38 is similar to ERK2 (Zhang, F., Strand, A., Robbins, D.,(More)
BACKGROUND The p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase regulates signal transduction in response to environmental stress. Pyridinylimidazole compounds are specific inhibitors of p38 MAP kinase that block the production of the cytokines interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha, and they are effective in animal models of arthritis, bone resorption(More)
BACKGROUND The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are members of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family, and regulate signal transduction in response to environmental stress. Activation and nuclear localization of JNK3, a neuronal-specific isoform of JNK, has been associated with hypoxic and ischemic damage of CA1 neurons in the hippocampus.(More)
An estimated 1% of the global human population is infected by hepatitis C viruses (HCVs), and there are no broadly effective treatments for the debilitating progression of chronic hepatitis C. A serine protease located within the HCV NS3 protein processes the viral polyprotein at four specific sites and is considered essential for replication. Thus, it(More)