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Much of the research in epidemiology and clinical science is based upon longitudinal designs which involve repeated measurements of a variable of interest in each of a series of individuals. Such designs can be very powerful, both statistically and scientifically, because they enable one to study changes within individual subjects over time or under varied(More)
Blood pressure is a heritable trait influenced by several biological pathways and responsive to environmental stimuli. Over one billion people worldwide have hypertension (≥140 mm Hg systolic blood pressure or  ≥90 mm Hg diastolic blood pressure). Even small increments in blood pressure are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. This(More)
Interindividual variation in mean leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is associated with cancer and several age-associated diseases. We report here a genome-wide meta-analysis of 37,684 individuals with replication of selected variants in an additional 10,739 individuals. We identified seven loci, including five new loci, associated with mean LTL (P < 5 ×(More)
Background Despite earlier doubts, a string of recent successes indicates that if sample sizes are large enough, it is possible—both in theory and in practice—to identify and replicate genetic associations with common complex diseases. But human genome epidemiology is expensive and, from a strategic perspective, it is still unclear what 'large enough'(More)
Genetic epidemiology is a rapidly expanding research field, but the implications of findings from such studies for individual or population health are unclear. The use of molecular genetic screening currently has some legitimacy in certain monogenic conditions, but no established value with respect to common complex diseases. Personalised medical care based(More)
Copy number variants (CNVs) account for a major proportion of human genetic polymorphism and have been predicted to have an important role in genetic susceptibility to common disease. To address this we undertook a large, direct genome-wide study of association between CNVs and eight common human diseases. Using a purpose-designed array we typed(More)
There has been a recent growth in the use of Bayesian methods in medical research. The main reasons for this are the development of computer intensive simulation based methods such as Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), increases in computing power and the introduction of powerful software such as WinBUGS. This has enabled increasingly complex models to be(More)
The notion of risk is central to epidemiological research, both in its original context of studying conditions thought to be caused by a particular factor and, more broadly, in predicting the probability of a condition for prognostic purposes. For prognostic research, all factors associated with the outcome are of interest, whether they are causal or not.(More)
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified many SNPs underlying variations in plasma-lipid levels. We explore whether additional loci associated with plasma-lipid phenotypes, such as high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), and triglycerides (TGs), can be identified by a(More)
The prevalence of hypertension in African Americans (AAs) is higher than in other US groups; yet, few have performed genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in AA. Among people of European descent, GWASs have identified genetic variants at 13 loci that are associated with blood pressure. It is unknown if these variants confer susceptibility in people of(More)