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BACKGROUND HIV infection and intimate-partner violence share a common risk environment in much of southern Africa. The aim of the Intervention with Microfinance for AIDS and Gender Equity (IMAGE) study was to assess a structural intervention that combined a microfinance programme with a gender and HIV training curriculum. METHODS Villages in the rural(More)
OBJECTIVES We sought to obtain evidence about the scope of women's empowerment and the mechanisms underlying the significant reduction in intimate partner violence documented by the Intervention With Microfinance for AIDS and Gender Equity (IMAGE) cluster-randomized trial in rural South Africa. METHODS The IMAGE intervention combined a microfinance(More)
OBJECTIVE To demonstrate the feasibility, acceptability and cost of home-based HIV testing and to examine the applicability of the model to high HIV prevalence settings. METHODS Quantitative, qualitative and cost data were collected during a home-based HIV testing program in a high-prevalence rural area of Kenya; data on age, gender and marital status(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess effects of a combined microfinance and training intervention on HIV risk behavior among young female participants in rural South Africa. DESIGN : Secondary analysis of quantitative and qualitative data from a cluster randomized trial, the Intervention with Microfinance for AIDS and Gender Equity study. METHODS Eight villages were(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the evidence that the association between educational attainment and risk of HIV infection is changing over time in sub-Saharan Africa. DESIGN AND METHODS Systematic review of published peer-reviewed articles. Articles were identified that reported original data comparing individually measured educational attainment and HIV status(More)
BACKGROUND The World Health Organization recommends isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for preventing tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults, although few countries have instituted this policy. Both IPT and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) used separately result in reductions in tuberculosis risk. There is less information on the combined effect of(More)
The role of social capital in promoting health is now widely debated within international public health. In relation to HIV, the results of previous observational and cross-sectional studies have been mixed. In some settings it has been suggested that high levels of social capital and community cohesion might be protective and facilitate more effective(More)
OBJECTIVE To explore whether adding a gender and HIV training programme to microfinance initiatives can lead to health and social benefits beyond those achieved by microfinance alone. METHODS Cross-sectional data were derived from three randomly selected matched clusters in rural South Africa: (i) four villages with 2-year exposure to the Intervention(More)
OBJECTIVES To explore patient and health worker perspectives on adherence to tuberculosis preventive therapy (TBPT), and to derive lessons for improving access to care amongst human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals in resource-poor settings. DESIGN Both quantitative and qualitative methods were employed. Patient records were reviewed for(More)
OBJECTIVES To investigate whether the prevalence of HIV infection among young people, and sexual behaviours associated with increased HIV risk, are differentially distributed between students and those not attending school or college. DESIGN A random population sample of unmarried young people (916 males, 1003 females) aged 14-25 years from rural South(More)