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The quantification of mRNA in postmortem human brain is often made complicated by confounding factors. To assess the importance of potential confounders TaqMan real-time RT-PCR was used to measure seven mRNAs (beta-actin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), cyclophilin, microtubule-associated protein (MAP) 2, neuron-specific enolase (NSE),(More)
Antibiotic prophylaxis has been used to good effect in the prevention of post-operative wound infections in patients undergoing gastrointestinal operations. We have assessed the use of a single dose of intravenous antibiotic (Augmentin 1.2 g), given with induction of anaesthesia as prophylaxis, against post-operative wound infection in women undergoing(More)
Expression levels of mRNA are commonly measured as a ratio of test to reference gene. The assumption is that reference genes such as beta-actin or cyclophilin are unaffected by treatment and act as steady-state controls. TaqMan real-time RT-PCR was used to test these assumptions in a rat model of cerebral ischaemia (tMCAO). Following measurement of 24(More)
Protocols for activity aiming at early diagnosis and treatment of inherited breast or breast-ovarian cancer have been reported. Available reports on outcome of such programmes are considered here. It is concluded that the ongoing activities should continue with minor modifications. Direct evidence of a survival benefit from breast and ovarian screening is(More)
Beta-secretase (BACE) and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK 3) are two enzymes thought to play a role in Alzheimer's disease. We extracted mRNA from 90 Alzheimer and 81 control brains. Levels of mRNA were quantified for BACE and GSK 3 with TaqMan real-time RT-PCR. We found no change in the Alzheimer's disease brains relative to controls for either the BACE or(More)
Cancer chemotherapy is currently given to patients with breast carcinoma on the basis of data from response rates in patients with advanced disease, or from the results of clinical trials of adjuvant therapy. However, individual tumours may vary in their response to particular cytotoxic drugs: optimal therapy for a population of patients may not be the(More)
We randomized 122 premenopausal women to receive tamoxifen or to undergo a surgical oophorectomy. Of 54 evaluable women treated with tamoxifen, 24% had an objective response, as compared with 21% of 53 women having an oophorectomy. The median duration of response for tamoxifen (20 months) was longer than that for surgical oophorectomy (7 months), but this(More)
Chemotherapy for breast cancer is given on the basis of empirical information from clinical trials, an approach which falls to take into account the known heterogeneity of chemosensitivity between patients. Previous attempts to determine chemosensitivity ex vivo have been disappointing, but in this study results from a newly developed tumor chemosensitivity(More)
One hundred and thirteen women aged 70 years or more with locoregional breast cancer were treated with tamoxifen alone as primary treatment. They were followed for a minimum of 5 years. Complete response occurred in 38 women, partial response in 17, no change in 34 and progressive disease in 24. Where progressive disease occurred, or where patients relapsed(More)