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The quantification of mRNA in postmortem human brain is often made complicated by confounding factors. To assess the importance of potential confounders TaqMan real-time RT-PCR was used to measure seven mRNAs (beta-actin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), cyclophilin, microtubule-associated protein (MAP) 2, neuron-specific enolase (NSE),(More)
Expression levels of mRNA are commonly measured as a ratio of test to reference gene. The assumption is that reference genes such as beta-actin or cyclophilin are unaffected by treatment and act as steady-state controls. TaqMan real-time RT-PCR was used to test these assumptions in a rat model of cerebral ischaemia (tMCAO). Following measurement of 24(More)
Beta-secretase (BACE) and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK 3) are two enzymes thought to play a role in Alzheimer's disease. We extracted mRNA from 90 Alzheimer and 81 control brains. Levels of mRNA were quantified for BACE and GSK 3 with TaqMan real-time RT-PCR. We found no change in the Alzheimer's disease brains relative to controls for either the BACE or(More)
Insoluble beta-amyloid deposits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain are proteolytically derived from the membrane bound amyloid precursor protein (APP). The APP gene is differentially spliced to produce isoforms that can be classified into those containing a Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor domain (K(+), APP(751), APP(770), APRP(365) and APRP(563)), and(More)
Quantitative human mRNA data are derived from post-mortem or biopsied tissue. RNA degradation, poor replication, a large mRNA variance and confounding factors such as brain pH and age of death are often cited, however, as objections to the data's reliability. A central question is whether post-mortem human mRNA can be treated as a statistically ordered(More)
Protocols for activity aiming at early diagnosis and treatment of inherited breast or breast-ovarian cancer have been reported. Available reports on outcome of such programmes are considered here. It is concluded that the ongoing activities should continue with minor modifications. Direct evidence of a survival benefit from breast and ovarian screening is(More)
BACKGROUND Surveillance programmes for women at increased genetic risk of breast cancer are being established worldwide but little is known of their efficacy in early detection of cancers and hence reduction in mortality. METHODS Data were contributed from seven centres participating in the EU Demonstration Programme on Clinical Services for Familial(More)
The paper describes a two week course that has been offered as a special study module to intermediate level (second and third year) undergraduate medical students at Dundee University Medical School for the past five years. The course requires students to research the various aspects of ethical dilemmas that they have identified themselves, and to "teach"(More)
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