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The hyperpolarization-activated cation current (termed I(h), I(q), or I(f)) was recently shown to be encoded by a new family of genes, named HCN for hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-sensitive cation nonselective. When expressed in heterologous cells, each HCN isoform generates channels with distinct activation kinetics, mirroring the range of(More)
We present a large-scale analysis of mRNA coexpression based on 60 large human data sets containing a total of 3924 microarrays. We sought pairs of genes that were reliably coexpressed (based on the correlation of their expression profiles) in multiple data sets, establishing a high-confidence network of 8805 genes connected by 220,649 "coexpression links"(More)
The activation of silent synapses is a proposed mechanism to account for rapid increases in synaptic efficacy such as long-term potentiation (LTP). Using simultaneous recordings from individual pre- and postsynaptic neurons in organotypic hippocampal slices, we show that two CA3 neurons can be connected entirely by silent synapses. Increasing release(More)
Drosophila bang-sensitive paralytic mutants suffer from hyperactivity and paralysis following a mechanical shock; after recovery from paralysis, they cannot be paralyzed for a refractory period lasting up to 1 hr. Previously, we have shown that in easily shocked (eas), a typical bang-sensitive mutant, electrical shocks delivered to the brain cause(More)
In our attempts to understand cellular function at the molecular level, we must be able to synthesize information from disparate types of genomic data. We consider the problem of inferring gene functional classifications from a heterogeneous data set consisting of DNA microarray expression measurements and phylogenetic profiles from whole-genome sequence(More)
BACKGROUND We performed a statistical analysis of a previously published set of gene expression microarray data from six different brain regions in two mouse strains. In the previous analysis, 24 genes showing expression differences between the strains and about 240 genes with regional differences in expression were identified. Like many gene expression(More)
BACKGROUND It is common for the results of a microarray study to be analyzed in the context of biologically-motivated groups of genes such as pathways or Gene Ontology categories. The most common method for such analysis uses the hypergeometric distribution (or a related technique) to look for "over-representation" of groups among genes selected as being(More)
We performed simultaneous whole cell recordings from pairs of monosynaptically coupled hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons in organotypic slices. Stimulation of an action potential in a presynaptic cell resulted in an AMPA-receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) in the postsynaptic cell that averaged approximately 34 pA. The average size of(More)
The growth in popularity of RNA expression microarrays has been accompanied by concerns about the reliability of the data especially when comparing between different platforms. Here, we present an evaluation of the reproducibility of microarray results using two platforms, Affymetrix GeneChips and Illumina BeadArrays. The study design is based on a dilution(More)
Recent evidence indicates that mouse and human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are fixed at different developmental stages, with the former positioned earlier. We show that a narrow concentration of the naturally occurring short-chain fatty acid, sodium butyrate, supports the extensive self-renewal of mouse and human ESCs, while promoting their convergence(More)