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Information contained in the spatial excitation pattern along arrayed sensors in the lateral line system of Lake Michigan mottled sculpin, as well as other surface-feeding fish and amphibians, is thought to play a fundamental role in guiding prey-orienting behaviors. However, the way in which prey location is encoded by the excitation pattern and used by(More)
When introduced into a novel environment that limits or prevents vision, a variety of species including Mexican blind cavefish (Astyanax mexicanus) exhibit wall-following behaviors. It is often assumed that wall following serves an exploratory function, but this assertion remains untested against alternative artifactual explanations. Here, we test whether(More)
A method for modeling anatomical connectivity for a vertically organized slab of cortical tissue in mammalian primary visual cortex has been developed. The modeled slab covers 500 × 500 μm of cortical surface and extends vertically throughout the full depth of the cortex. The model slab was divided into 6 laminae and neuronal somata were distributed in(More)
Mexican blind cavefish exhibit an unconditioned wall-following behavior in response to novel environments. Similar behaviors have been observed in a wide variety of animals, but the biological significance and evolutionary history of this behavior are largely unknown. In this study, the behaviors of Mexican blind cavefish (Astyanax sp.) and sighted Mexican(More)
A computational model of the flow of activity in a vertically organized slab of cat primary visual cortex (area 17) has been developed. The membrane potential of each cell in the model, as a function of time, is given by the solution of a system of first order, coupled, non-linear differential equations. When firing threshold is exceeded, an action(More)
Blind cavefish use a form of active sensing in which burst-coast swimming motions generate flow signals detected by the lateral line. To determine if blind cavefish have evolved behavioral specializations for active flow-sensing, including the ability to regulate flow signal production through lateral line feedback, the swimming kinematics of blind and(More)
Thousands of years before the maize-based agriculture practiced by many Native American societies in eastern North America at the time of contact with Europeans, there existed a unique crop system only known through archaeological evidence. There are no written or oral records of how these lost crops were cultivated, but several domesticated subspecies have(More)
We investigated the rotational dynamics of single microparticles during their internalization by macrophage cells. The microparticles used were triblock patchy particles that display two fluorescent patches on their two poles. The optical anisotropy made it possible to directly visualize and quantify the orientation and rotation of the particles. We show(More)
  • Paul Patton
  • 2015
At the end of the nineteenth century, Ludwig Edinger completed the first comparative survey of the microscopic anatomy of vertebrate brains. He is regarded as the founder of the field of comparative neuroanatomy. Modern commentators have misunderstood him to have espoused an anti-Darwinian linear view of brain evolution, harkening to the metaphysics of the(More)
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