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This study was conducted to assess evolutionary relationships, species diversity and trichothecene toxin potential of five Fusarium graminearum complex (FGSC) isolates identified as genetically novel during prior Fusarium head blight (FHB) surveys in Nepal and Louisiana. Results of a multilocus genotyping (MLGT) assay for B-trichothecene species(More)
In this paper we examine whether the real exchange rate of commodity-exporting countries and the real price of their commodity exports move together over time. Using IMF data on the world price of 44 commodities and national commodity-export shares, we construct new monthly indices of national commodity-export prices for 58 countries over the period 1980 to(More)
Using the longest dataset publicly available (The Economist's index of industrial commodity prices), we analyze the behavior of real commodity prices over the period 1862–1999 and have two main findings. First, while there has been a downward trend in real commodity prices of about 1 percent per year over the last 140 years, little support is found for a(More)
BACKGROUND Fusarium species cause Fusarium head blight (FHB) and other important diseases of cereals. The causal agents produce trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON). The dicotyledonous model species Arabidopsis thaliana has been used to study Fusarium-host interactions but it is not ideal for model-to-crop translation. Brachypodium(More)
Lesion mimic mutants display spontaneous necrotic spots and chlorotic leaves as a result of mis-regulated cell death programmes. Typically these mutants have increased resistance to biotrophic pathogens but their response to facultative fungi that cause necrotrophic diseases is less well studied. The effect of altered cell death regulation on the(More)
Saturn's F ring has brightened markedly in the last 25 years. It is twice as bright in the Cassini data as it was in the Voyager data from 1980 and 1981. This conclusion is based on photometric comparisons of Cassini and Voyager images, and is supported by occultation data. We attribute this change to increasing perturbations by nearby Pro-metheus, which(More)
rapidly induced lysis, suggesting that MurJ function, and thus PG synthesis, was inhibited (Fig. 2 and fig. S5). In contrast, treatment of MurJ E273C cells with MTSES caused cell shape defects and limited lysis indicative of an incomplete PG synthesis block due to partial MurJ inhibition. The toxicity of MTSES labeling was suppressed in all five strains by(More)
The Green Revolution dwarfing genes, Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b, encode mutant forms of DELLA proteins and are present in most modern wheat varieties. DELLA proteins have been implicated in the response to biotic stress in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. Using defined wheat Rht near-isogenic lines and barley Sln1 gain of function (GoF) and loss of function(More)
Type VI secretion systems (T6SS) are a class of macromolecular secretion machines that are utilized by a number of bacteria for inter-bacterial competition or to elicit responses in eukaryotic cells. Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen that causes severe infections in humans. These infections, including pneumonia and bacteremia, are(More)
Measurements of local environmental conditions, intensity of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat spikes, biomass of Fusarium graminearum, F. culmorum, and F. poae (pathogens causing FHB) and concentration of the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) in harvested wheat grain were obtained in a total of 150 location-years, originating in three(More)