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This study was conducted to assess evolutionary relationships, species diversity and trichothecene toxin potential of five Fusarium graminearum complex (FGSC) isolates identified as genetically novel during prior Fusarium head blight (FHB) surveys in Nepal and Louisiana. Results of a multilocus genotyping (MLGT) assay for B-trichothecene species(More)
In this paper we examine whether the real exchange rate of commodity-exporting countries and the real price of their commodity exports move together over time. Using IMF data on the world price of 44 commodities and national commodity-export shares, we construct new monthly indices of national commodity-export prices for 58 countries over the period 1980 to(More)
BACKGROUND Fusarium species cause Fusarium head blight (FHB) and other important diseases of cereals. The causal agents produce trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON). The dicotyledonous model species Arabidopsis thaliana has been used to study Fusarium-host interactions but it is not ideal for model-to-crop translation. Brachypodium(More)
Lesion mimic mutants display spontaneous necrotic spots and chlorotic leaves as a result of mis-regulated cell death programmes. Typically these mutants have increased resistance to biotrophic pathogens but their response to facultative fungi that cause necrotrophic diseases is less well studied. The effect of altered cell death regulation on the(More)
rapidly induced lysis, suggesting that MurJ function, and thus PG synthesis, was inhibited (Fig. 2 and fig. S5). In contrast, treatment of MurJ E273C cells with MTSES caused cell shape defects and limited lysis indicative of an incomplete PG synthesis block due to partial MurJ inhibition. The toxicity of MTSES labeling was suppressed in all five strains by(More)
Type VI secretion systems (T6SS) are a class of macromolecular secretion machines that are utilized by a number of bacteria for inter-bacterial competition or to elicit responses in eukaryotic cells. Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen that causes severe infections in humans. These infections, including pneumonia and bacteremia, are(More)
During the past decade, Brachypodium distachyon has emerged as an attractive experimental system and genomics model for grass research. Numerous molecular tools and genomics resources have already been developed. Functional genomics resources, including mutant collections, expression/tiling microarray, mapping populations, and genome re-sequencing for(More)
Measurements of local environmental conditions, intensity of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat spikes, biomass of Fusarium graminearum, F. culmorum, and F. poae (pathogens causing FHB) and concentration of the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) in harvested wheat grain were obtained in a total of 150 location-years, originating in three(More)
NAC proteins are plant transcription factors that are involved in tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses, as well as in many developmental processes. Stress-responsive NAC1 (SNAC1) transcription factor is involved in drought tolerance in barley and rice, but has not been shown previously to have a role in disease resistance. Transgenic over-expression of(More)
The phenylpropanoid pathway in plants synthesizes a variety of structural and defence compounds, and is an important target in efforts to reduce cell wall lignin for improved biomass conversion to biofuels. Little is known concerning the trade-offs in grasses when perturbing the function of the first gene family in the pathway, PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA LYASE(More)