Paul N. Durfee

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Encapsulation of drugs within nanocarriers that selectively target malignant cells promises to mitigate side effects of conventional chemotherapy and to enable delivery of the unique drug combinations needed for personalized medicine. To realize this potential, however, targeted nanocarriers must simultaneously overcome multiple challenges, including(More)
Virus-like particles (VLPs) of bacteriophage MS2 possess numerous features that make them well-suited for use in targeted delivery of therapeutic and imaging agents. MS2 VLPs can be rapidly produced in large quantities using in vivo or in vitro synthesis techniques. Their capsids can be modified in precise locations via genetic insertion or chemical(More)
Virus-like particles (VLPs) can be exploited as platforms to increase the immunogenicity of poorly immunogenic antigens, including self-proteins. We have developed VLP-based vaccines that target two domains of the HIV coreceptor CCR5 that are involved in HIV binding. These vaccines induce anti-CCR5 antibodies that bind to native CCR5 and inhibit SIV(More)
PURPOSE We established gene expression profiles by gene array analysis in the LNCaP model of human prostate cancer progression and evaluated genes differentially expressed in the androgen independent and bone metastatic C4-2 cell line compared to the androgen dependent and nonmetastatic parental LNCaP cell line. MATERIALS AND METHODS Gene expression(More)
Mesoporous silica nanoparticle-supported lipid bilayers, termed 'protocells,' represent a potentially transformative class of therapeutic and theranostic delivery vehicle. The field of targeted drug delivery poses considerable challenges that cannot be addressed with a single 'magic bullet'. Consequently, the protocell has been designed as a modular(More)
BACKGROUND Extracellular vesicles released by prostate cancer present in seminal fluid, urine, and blood may represent a non-invasive means to identify and prioritize patients with intermediate risk and high risk of prostate cancer. We hypothesize that enumeration of circulating prostate microparticles (PMPs), a type of extracellular vesicle (EV), can(More)
Many nanocarrier cancer therapeutics currently under development, as well as those used in the clinical setting, rely upon the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect to passively accumulate in the tumor microenvironment and kill cancer cells. In leukemia, where leukemogenic stem cells and their progeny circulate within the peripheral blood or bone(More)
BACKGROUND Trophic interactions between muscle fibers and motoneurons at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) play a critical role in determining motor function throughout development, ageing, injury, or disease. Treatment of neuromuscular disorders is hindered by the inability to selectively target motoneurons with pharmacological and genetic interventions. (More)
BACKGROUND The ability to isolate extracellular vesicles (EVs) such as exosomes or microparticles is an important method that is currently not standardized. While commercially available kits offer purification of EVs from biofluids, such purified EV samples will also contain non-EV entities such as soluble protein and nucleic acids that could confound(More)
Encapsulation of drugs within nanocarriers that selectively target malignant cells promises to mitigate side effects of conventional chemotherapy and to enable delivery of the unique drug combinations needed for personalized medicine. To realize this potential, however, targeted nanocarriers must simultaneously overcome multiple challenges, including(More)
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