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PURPOSE A classic twin study was undertaken to assess the contribution of genes and environment to the development of refractive errors and ocular biometrics in a twin population. METHODS A total of 1224 twins (345 monozygotic [MZ] and 267 dizygotic [DZ] twin pairs) aged between 18 and 88 years were examined. All twins completed a questionnaire consisting(More)
BACKGROUND Retinal ganglion cell loss is considered to be a cause of visual impairment in Alzheimer;s patients. Alterations in amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing and amyloid-beta (Abeta) accumulation, key molecules associated with Alzheimer;s disease pathogenesis, may therefore contribute to retinal damage. We therefore investigated retinal APP(More)
PURPOSE To date, of all the genes studied in relation to age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the alleles of the apolipoprotein (apoE) gene have been the most consistently associated with disease. However, not all apoE studies have found an association, and among these the associations differ. The current study was conducted to investigate further the(More)
BACKGROUND There is a likely genetic component to transsexualism, and genes involved in sex steroidogenesis are good candidates. We explored the specific hypothesis that male-to-female transsexualism is associated with gene variants responsible for undermasculinization and/or feminization. Specifically, we assessed the role of disease-associated repeat(More)
PURPOSE Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) drugs have dramatically improved the treatment of neovascular AMD. In pivotal studies, almost 90% of patients maintain vision, with approximately 30% showing significant improvement. Despite these successes, 10% to 15% of patients continue to lose vision, even with treatment. It has been reported(More)
BACKGROUND HMG Co-A reductase inhibitors are ubiquitous in our community yet their potential role in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) remains to be determined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effect of simvastatin on AMD progression and the effect modification by polymorphism in apolipoprotein E (ApoE) and complement(More)
In the family reported here, a mother and both of her children developed a Wilms tumour, and all three tumours were of the relatively rare monomorphous epithelial histopathological subtype. Using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, both sibs were shown to inherit the same maternal allele from the 11p13 region but different maternal alleles(More)
PURPOSE To examine whether genetic factors significantly influence macular thickness in healthy older subjects. METHODS A classic twin study was performed to compare the correlation of macular thickness between monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins in a sample of population-based volunteer twins. The study included 109 white twin pairs from 50 to 80(More)