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Infants and children are routinely vaccinated with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in areas of the world where worm infections are common. Because maternal helminth infection during pregnancy can sensitize the developing fetus, we studied whether this prenatal immunity persists in childhood and modifies the immune response to BCG. Children and newborns(More)
This study examined the hypothesis that the nature of the host cellular immune response to schistosome ova is a risk factor for urinary tract morbidity in areas in which Schistosoma haematobium is endemic. S. haematobium-infected children and adolescents with bladder pathology assessed by ultrasonography had 54-fold greater tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha(More)
Neonates exposed to parasite antigens (Ags) in utero may develop altered fetal immunity that could affect subsequent responses to infection. We hypothesized that cord blood lymphocytes (CBL) from offspring of mothers residing in an area highly endemic for schistosomiasis, filariasis, and tuberculosis in Kenya would either fail to respond or generate a(More)
Human neonates are generally deficient in their ability to generate humoral immunity. This deficiency is thought to reflect physiologic immaturity of T and B cell function and lack of previous exposure to exogenous Ags. To determine whether neonatal humoral immunity can be modified by maternal helminth infection during pregnancy, we assessed Ig production(More)
The prevalence of malaria infection in 102 paired maternal-blood and umbilical cord-blood samples was assessed by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a holoendemic area in Kenya. Plasmodium falciparum single-species infection was detected in maternal peripheral blood (3.4%), whereas microscopy indicated that no Plasmodium species were in cord(More)
Repeated selective population chemotherapy of school age children reduces infection and morbidity associated with Schistosoma haematobium infection. To examine the long-term effect of this treatment on susceptibility to re-infection and late disease, a cohort of Kenyans (n = 194) were re-examined for infection and urinary tract morbidity 7-13 years after(More)
We evaluated the impact of praziquantel therapy (40 mg/kg body weight) on indicators of infection with Schistosoma haematobium by following a cohort of infected children from schools located 12 km apart in the Coast province of Kenya, at 0, 2, 4, 6, 12 and 18 months after treatment. Within this period, measurements of infection parameters pertaining to egg(More)
A school- and chemotherapy-based urinary schistosomiasis and intestinal helminth infection control programme was conducted in Matuga Division, Kwale District, Coast Province with teachers taking care of diagnosis, treatment and health education. More than 12,000 children in 36 primary schools were included in the 2-year programme. Results for 20 evaluation(More)
  • P Mungai
  • 1996
While African men are largely apathetic to family planning, they are not necessarily uninterested. Many African men want to participate more actively in deciding how many children they should have and when to have them, but they lack sufficient information to do so. In some cases, many men do not know about contraceptives. Even those who are aware have(More)
AIMS Therapeutic approaches to treat familial dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), which is characterized by depressed sarcomeric tension and susceptibility to Ca(2+)-related arrhythmias, have been generally unsuccessful. Our objective in the present work was to determine the effect of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) biased ligand, TRV120023, on(More)