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Spinal cord injury is a devastating condition, with much of the clinical disability resulting from disruption of white matter tracts. Recent reports suggest a component of glutamate excitotoxicity in spinal cord injury. In this study, the role of glutamate and mechanism of release of this excitotoxin were investigated in rat dorsal column slices subjected(More)
With the approval of alteplase (tPA) therapy for stroke, it is likely that combination therapy with tPA to restore blood flow, and agents like glutamate receptor antagonists to halt or reverse the cascade of neuronal damage, will dominate the future of stroke care. The authors describe events and potential targets of therapeutic intervention that contribute(More)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) is a peptide that is present in the hypothalamus and other areas of the rat brain. This study demonstrates that PACAP reduces food intake after intracerebroventricular injection in food-deprived mice. Behavioral analysis suggests that this decrease in food intake is, in part, compensated for by an(More)
Cross-sectional studies have demonstrated a decline in testosterone and free and bioavailable testosterone with age. This occurs in a majority of older persons without an increase in luteinizing hormone (LH), suggesting that a component of the testosterone decrease is due to secondary hypogonadism. To determine whether these findings could be duplicated in(More)
Excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system is mediated primarily by the release of glutamate from presynaptic terminals onto postsynaptic channels gated by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) receptors. The myriad intracellular responses arising from the activation of the NMDA and(More)
NMDA receptor antagonists, such as (+)-5-methyl-10, 11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo [a,d] cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate (MK-801), potently block glutamate-induced neuronal death in myriad in vitro cell models and effectively attenuate ischemic damage in vivo. In this report, a novel role for MK-801 and other NMDA receptor antagonists in preconditioning neurons to(More)
The effects of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract on rat brain or livermonoamine oxidase (MAO)-A and -B activity, biogenic amine concentration in nervous tissue, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)- and N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4)-induced neurotoxicity and antioxidant activity was investigated to determine the effects of the extract on monoamine(More)
Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) initiates a coordinated differentiation program in various cell types but the mechanism(s) by which DMSO does this is not understood. In this study, the effect of DMSO on intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i) was determined in primary cultures of chicken ovarian granulosa cells from the two largest preovulatory(More)
Ca2+ and Ca(2+)-binding proteins are involved in running the cell cycle. Ca2+ spikes and signals from integrin-activated focal adhesion complexes and Ca2+ receptors on the cell surface along with cyclic AMP begin the cycle of cyclin-dependent protein kinases (PKs). These transiently expressed PKs stimulate the coordinate expression of DNA-replicating(More)
Human parathyroid hormone (hPTH)-(1-31)NH2 (Ostabolin), which only stimulates adenylyl cyclase (AC) instead of AC and phospholipase-C as do hPTH(1-84) and hPTH(1-34), strongly stimulates femoral cortical and trabecular bone growth in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Two side-chain lactams have been introduced in the hydrophilic face of the receptor-binding region(More)