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Pictures of facial expressions from the Ekman and Friesen set (Ekman, P., Friesen, W. V., (1976). Pictures of facial affect. Palo Alto, California: Consulting Psychologists Press) were submitted to a principal component analysis (PCA) of their pixel intensities. The output of the PCA was submitted to a series of linear discriminant analyses which revealed(More)
Molecular switches have been implicated in the storage of information in biological systems. For small structures such as synapses, these switches are composed of only a few molecules and stochastic fluctuations are therefore of importance. Such fluctuations could potentially lead to spontaneous switch reset that would limit the lifetime of information(More)
Although temporal coding is a frequent topic of neurophysiology research, trial-to-trial variability in temporal codes is typically dismissed as noise and thought to play no role in sensory function. Here, we show that much of this supposed "noise" faithfully reflects stimulus-related processes carried out in coherent neural networks. Cortical neurons(More)
A parametric working memory network stores the information of an analog stimulus in the form of persistent neural activity that is monotonically tuned to the stimulus. The family of persistent firing patterns with a continuous range of firing rates must all be realizable under exactly the same external conditions (during the delay when the transient(More)
We examined neural spike recordings from prefrontal cortex (PFC) while monkeys performed a delayed somatosensory discrimination task. In general, PFC neurons displayed great heterogeneity in response to the task. That is, although individual cells spiked reliably in response to task variables from trial-to-trial, each cell had idiosyncratic combinations of(More)
The marRAB operon is a regulatory locus that controls multiple drug resistance in Escherichia coli. marA encodes a positive regulator of the antibiotic resistance response, acting by altering the expression of unlinked genes. marR encodes a repressor of marRAB transcription and controls the production of MarA in response to environmental signals. A(More)
Animals must respond selectively to specific combinations of salient environmental stimuli in order to survive in complex environments. A task with these features, biconditional discrimination, requires responses to select pairs of stimuli that are opposite to responses to those stimuli in another combination. We investigate the characteristics of synaptic(More)
The pattern of connections among cortical excitatory cells with overlapping arbors is non-random. In particular, correlations among connections produce clustering - cells in cliques connect to each other with high probability, but with lower probability to cells in other spatially intertwined cliques. In this study, we model initially randomly connected(More)
Multiple antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli has typically been associated with mutations at the mar locus, located at 34 min on the E. coli chromosome. A new mutant, marC, isolated on the basis of a Mar phenotype but which maps to the soxRS (encoding the regulators of the superoxide stress response) locus located at 92 min, is described here. This(More)
Noise, which is ubiquitous in the nervous system, causes trial-to-trial variability in the neural responses to stimuli. This neural variability is in turn a likely source of behavioral variability. Using Hidden Markov modeling, a method of analysis that can make use of such trial-to-trial response variability, we have uncovered sequences of discrete states(More)