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In 7 experiments the authors investigated the locus of word frequency effects in speech production. Experiment 1 demonstrated a frequency effect in picture naming that was robust over repetitions. Experiments 2, 3, and 7 excluded contributions from object identification and initiation of articulation. Experiments 4 and 5 investigated whether the effect(More)
Individuals vary considerably in the extent to which they attribute incentive salience to food-associated cues. We asked whether individuals prone to attribute incentive salience to a food cue are also prone to attribute incentive properties to a stimulus associated with a drug of abuse—cocaine. We first identified those rats that attributed incentive(More)
If reward-associated cues acquire the properties of incentive stimuli they can come to powerfully control behavior, and potentially promote maladaptive behavior. Pavlovian incentive stimuli are defined as stimuli that have three fundamental properties: they are attractive, they are themselves desired, and they can spur instrumental actions. We have found,(More)
There are mixed results on the effects of opioid antagonists on acute nicotine response in humans. The present study examined the effects of a single dose of 50 mg oral naltrexone relative to placebo on smoking response in 22 chronic smokers during short-term nicotine abstinence, after acute smoking and subsequent smoking deprivation, and on smoking(More)
Some rats [sign-trackers (STs)] are especially prone to attribute incentive salience to reward cues, relative to others [goal-trackers (GTs)]. Thus, reward cues are more likely to promote maladaptive reward-seeking behavior in STs than GTs. Here, we asked whether STs and GTs differ on another trait that can contribute to poor restraint over behavior evoked(More)
Neuroanatomical research suggests that interactions between dopamine and glutamate within the mesolimbic dopamine system are involved in both drug-induced locomotor stimulation and addiction. Therefore, genetically determined differences in the locomotor responses to ethanol and cocaine may be related to differences in the effects of these drugs on this(More)
RATIONALE Morphine relieves pain, in part, by acting on neurons within the periaqueductal gray (PAG). Given that the PAG contains a subpopulation of dopamine neurons, dopamine may contribute to the antinociceptive effects mediated by the PAG. METHODS This hypothesis was tested by measuring the behavioral and electrophysiological effects of administering(More)
BACKGROUND Abnormal function of striatal dopaminergic synapses is suggested to underlie Tourette's syndrome (TS). OBJECTIVE To determine dorsal striatal dopaminergic innervation in TS. Prior in vitro and in vivo studies of dopamine reuptake transporter binding sites suggest increased striatal dopaminergic innervation in TS. METHODS We used in vivo(More)
RATIONALE The literature offers many examples of tolerance to ethanol's inhibitory/depressant effects and sensitization to its activating effects. There are also many examples of tolerance to ethanol's aversive effects as measured in the conditioned taste aversion and conditioned place aversion (CPA) procedures. However, there are very few demonstrations of(More)
BACKGROUND Excessive striatal dopaminergic innervation is suggested to underlie Tourette syndrome (TS). Prior imaging and postmortem studies yield conflicting data. METHODS The authors used PET with the type 2 vesicular monoamine transporter ligand [(11)C]dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) to quantify striatal monoaminergic innervation in patients with TS (n =(More)