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Muscular dystrophy includes a diverse group of inherited muscle diseases characterized by wasting and weakness of skeletal muscle. Mutations in dysferlin are linked to two clinically distinct muscle diseases, limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B and Miyoshi myopathy, but the mechanism that leads to muscle degeneration is unknown. Dysferlin is a homologue(More)
Plasma membrane disruptions are resealed by an active molecular mechanism thought to be composed, in part, of kinesin, CaM kinase, snap-25, and synaptobrevin. We have used HRP to mark the cytoplasmic site of a mechanically induced plasma membrane disruption. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that vesicles of a variety of sizes rapidly (s) accumulate(More)
On demand, rapid Ca(2+)-triggered homotypic and exocytic membrane-fusion events are required to repair a torn plasma membrane, and we propose that this emergency-based fusion differs fundamentally from other rapid, triggered fusion reactions. Emergency fusion might use a specialized protein and organelle emergency response team that can simultaneously(More)
Muscle and bone anabolism and catabolism are tightly coupled during growth, development, and aging, yet the cellular and molecular mechanisms linking these two tissues are not well understood. Here we show that FGF-2 and IGF-1, two growth factors known to play a major role in regulating bone formation, are localized to muscle fibers along the muscle-bone(More)
A microneedle puncture of the fibroblast or sea urchin egg surface rapidly evokes a localized exocytotic reaction that may be required for the rapid resealing that follows this breach in plasma membrane integrity (Steinhardt, R.A,. G. Bi, and J.M. Alderton. 1994. Science (Wash. DC). 263:390-393). How this exocytotic reaction facilitates the resealing(More)
We have combined fluorescent analogue cytochemistry with fluorescence photobleaching recovery to measure the mobility of fluorescently labeled actin and other labeled test proteins microinjected into living amoebae. Bovine serum albumin, ovalbumin, and ribonuclease A have a cytoplasmic mobility, expressed as a diffusion coefficient, that is 1/2 to 1/3 of(More)
We describe a simple, efficient, gentle and inexpensive technique for the introduction of normally impermeant macromolecules into the cytosol of living mammalian cells growing in suspension or attached to the culturing substratum. Loading is achieved by the production of transient, survivable plasma membrane disruptions as cells are passed back and forth(More)
The authors have tested the hypothesis that plasma membrane disruptions are an early form of structural damage to the fibers of eccentrically exercised muscle. Rat serum albumin (RSA) was used as a marker for muscle-fiber wounding in the rat tricep (medial head) exercised eccentrically by downhill running. In all muscles examined, strong staining with a(More)
Vesicle-vesicle fusion initiated in cell cytoplasm by high Ca(2+) can rapidly erect large membrane boundaries. These might be used as a 'patch' for resealing plasma membrane disruptions. Three central predictions of this 'patch' hypothesis are here established in sea urchin eggs. First, we show that surface markers for plasma membrane protein and lipid are(More)
We describe a simple method for loading exogenous macromolecules into the cytoplasm of mammalian cells adherent to tissue culture dishes. Culture medium was replaced with a thin layer of fluorescently labeled macromolecules, the cells were harvested from the substrate by scraping with a rubber policeman, transferred immediately to ice cold media, washed,(More)