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Macrophages or activated microglia in the subretinal space are considered a hallmark of some retinal pathologies. We investigated the effects of age, pigmentation and CX(3)CR1 deficiency on the accumulation of macrophages/activated microglia in the outer retina of young and old Cx(3)cr1(gfp/gfp) (CX(3)CR1-deficient) or Cx(3)cr1(gfp/+) mice on either a(More)
Dendritic cells (DC) are regarded as the 'sentinels' of the immune system. They play a crucial role in surveillance of peripheral tissues, trapping antigens encountered there, and migrating via the lymphatics to lymphoid organs where they interact with naive T cells thus generating antigen-specific primary immune responses. Until now it has been assumed DC(More)
PURPOSE Footpad injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) causes pronounced anterior uveitis in susceptible species and strains. Recent studies using wholemount techniques have demonstrated the presence of rich networks of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-positive dendritic cells (DC) and resident tissue macrophages in the iris and(More)
PURPOSE To establish the presence of distinct populations of macrophages and MHC class II (Ia)-positive dendritic cells (DC) in the iris and ciliary body of the rat, mouse, and human eye. METHODS Iris-ciliary body wholemounts from a variety of rat strains, balb/c mice, and human eyes were investigated by single and double immunohistochemistry,(More)
Light-microscopic and ultrastructural analysis of the ocular tissues of the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) revealed that the arterial and venous segments of retinal vessels, including capillaries of the smallest calibre, occur in pairs. They do not form anastomotic networks, the common pattern in mammals with vascularised retinae, but instead(More)
Marsupials are unique models for developmental biology-oriented research because of the immature state of their development at birth. The North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) has several advantages over other marsupials, including large litter size, short prenatal period (12.5 d), an extended postnatal period while accessible in the pouch, and its(More)
Class II major histocompatibility complex (Ia)-bearing dendritic cells (DC) from airway epithelium and lung parenchyma express low-moderate antigen presenting cell (APC) activity when freshly isolated. However, this function is markedly upregulated during overnight culture in a manner analogous to epidermal Langerhans cells. The in vitro "maturation"(More)
PURPOSE Recent investigations have revealed that populations of macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) are present in the stroma and epithelium of the cornea, although the precise phenotype and distribution are still controversial. CX(3)CR1, the sole receptor for the chemokine fractalkine, is expressed by these monocyte-derived cells. Transgenic(More)
PURPOSE To identify potential antigen-presenting cells in the choroid and retina of the normal rat eye, with a view to proposing a role for such cells in the induction and perpetuation of experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis, a model of human uveoretinal inflammation. METHODS Immunohistochemical and electron microscopic studies using a panel of(More)
AIM To determine the sub-macular Bruch's membrane (BrM) macrophage count and the choroidal and BrM macrophage immunophenotype in normal eyes and in eyes with early and advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS BrM macrophages were counted in 125 human eyes (normal, normal aged, early AMD and geographical atrophy), and CD68 and inducible(More)