Paul McKeigue

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Lighter variations of pigmentation in humans are associated with diminished number, size, and density of melanosomes, the pigmented organelles of melanocytes. Here we show that zebrafish golden mutants share these melanosomal changes and that golden encodes a putative cation exchanger slc24a5 (nckx5) that localizes to an intracellular membrane, likely the(More)
To control for hidden population stratification in genetic-association studies, statistical methods that use marker genotype data to infer population structure have been proposed as a possible alternative to family-based designs. In principle, it is possible to infer population structure from associations between marker loci and from associations of markers(More)
Human skin pigmentation shows a strong positive correlation with ultraviolet radiation intensity, suggesting that variation in skin color is, at least partially, due to adaptation via natural selection. We investigated the evolution of pigmentation variation by testing for the presence of positive directional selection in 6 pigmentation genes using an(More)
Uric acid is the end product of purine metabolism in humans and great apes, which have lost hepatic uricase activity, leading to uniquely high serum uric acid concentrations (200–500 μM) compared with other mammals (3–120 μM). About 70% of daily urate disposal occurs via the kidneys, and in 5–25% of the human population, impaired renal excretion leads to(More)
Inability to replicate many results has led to increasing scepticism about the value of simple association study designs for detection of genetic variants contributing to common complex traits. Much attention has been drawn to the problems that might, in theory, bedevil this approach, including confounding from population structure, misclassification of(More)
Ancestry informative markers (AIMs) are genetic loci showing alleles with large frequency differences between populations. AIMs can be used to estimate biogeographical ancestry at the level of the population, subgroup (e.g. cases and controls) and individual. Ancestry estimates at both the subgroup and individual level can be directly instructive regarding(More)
Leptin, a hormone secreted by adipocytes, plays a pivotal role in the control of body weight. Rodents with mutations in the leptin receptor gene develop morbid obesity. It is possible, therefore, that leptin receptor gene mutations contribute to human obesity. To test this possibility, we determined the entire coding sequence of the human leptin receptor(More)
Admixture mapping (AM) is a promising method for the identification of genetic risk factors for complex traits and diseases showing prevalence differences among populations. Efficient application of this method requires the use of a genomewide panel of ancestry-informative markers (AIMs) to infer the population of origin of chromosomal regions in admixed(More)