Paul McGivern

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The traditional lecture format still remains one of the most commonly used within higher education, yet it does not provide an optimal environment for learning (Draper and Brown, 2004). Here we will focus upon the use of questioning in large lecture halls and in particular the use of mass audience response systems (also known as clickers or polling(More)
A modification of the standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is described which circumvents the requirement for specifically purified antibodies from which antibody-enzyme complexes are made. The assay utilizes the principle of a soluble anti-alkaline phosphatase immune complex (AP-A-AP) and has been called the amplified ELISA. Methods for(More)
The comparative quantitation of serum antibodies to a defined antigen, using the amplified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (a-ELISA), has been demonstrated in a model system in which bovine immunoglobulins (Ig) IgG1, IgG2, IgA, and IgM antibodies to human serum albumin (HSA) were measured. Comparative measurements are facilitated because the same(More)
The sera of cows inoculated with Brucella abortus have a characteristically high titer of immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 antibodies to a soluble brucella antigen compared with sera of noninoculated vaccinated cattle. Concentrations of antigen-specific IgG1 were greater than 10-fold higher than those for IgG2, even though total IgG2 concentrations were higher than(More)
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