Paul Mark Knopf

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This new view of the immunoreactivity of the normal brain is based on three key components. First, there is an active and highly-regulated communication between the brain and the central immune organs. Secondly, the connection from the brain to the draining nodes is much larger than previously appreciated. And third, the blood-brain barrier, by virtue of(More)
Cerebral extracellular fluids drain from brain to blood across the arachnoid villi and to lymph along certain cranial nerves (primarily olfactory) and spinal nerve root ganglia. Quantification of the connection to lymph in rabbit, cat and sheep, using radiolabelled albumin as a marker of flow, indicates that a minimum of 14 to 47% of protein injected into(More)
Serologic studies of children with Tourette syndrome (TS) have detected anti-neuronal antibodies but their role in TS has not been explored. Stereotypies and episodic utterances, analogous to involuntary movements seen in TS, were induced in rats by intrastriatal microinfusion of TS sera or gamma immunoglobulins (IgG) under noninflammatory conditions, as(More)
The intrathecal Ab response to Ag introduced into the normal brain has not been fully explored. Involvement of Ag-specific, peripheral B cells in an intrathecal response was studied using a normal rat model of Ag infusion through an indwelling cannula into defined brain sites, while maintaining a functionally intact blood-brain barrier. Specific Ab was(More)
The humoral immune response to human serum albumin (HSA) microinfused into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been measured in serum, cervical lymph nodes, and spleen of Sprague-Dawley rats. Conditions were designed to promote normal brain barrier function. Serum titers of anti-HSA antibodies, primarily IgG, increased over 10 days and then persisted for at least(More)
CNS immune regulation is intimately dependent on the dynamics of cerebral extracellular fluid circulation. Animal models indicate that following the introduction of antigen into the CNS, normal circulation of interstitial and cerebrospinal fluids provides the opportunity for (a) delivery of CNS-derived antigen to lymphoid organs, as well as, (b) retention(More)
The magnitudes of serum antibody responses to ovalbumin have been compared following immunization via cerebral or extracerebral sites in Sprague-Dawley rats. In central nervous system (CNS)-immunized rats, conditions were designed to ensure normal brain barrier permeability. Extracerebral immunization was via the footpad or along pathways of antigen outflow(More)
A family of Schistosoma mansoni proteins (18-22 kDa, pI 5.3-5.8) are biosynthesized in juvenile worms and immunoprecipitated by antibodies uniquely present in protective Fischer rat antiserum. A cDNA clone, lambda gt11-40, expressing epitopes common to this protein family was used to obtain a genomic DNA clone, by hybridization with a lambda gt11-40(More)