Paul M Young

Learn More
We present two results about witness functions for sets in NP and coNP. First, any set that has a polynomially computable function which witnesses that it is not in coNP must be at least NP-hard. It follows from this result that any set in N P c o N P that has a polynomially computable function which witnesses this fact must already be complete for NP.(More)
The capability of the electrostatic next generation impactor (eNGI) has been investigated as a tool capable of measuring the electrostatic charge of single (Flixotide™; containing fluticasone propionate (FP)) and combination (Seretide™; FP and salmeterol xinafoate (SX)) pressurised metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) at different flow rates. Aerosol mass(More)
Spinning reserves are an electricity grid operator’s first strategy for maintaining system reliability following a major disturbance. The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project has demonstrated that it is technologically feasible to provide spinning reserves using aggregations of small, controllable residential appliances. This paper addresses two(More)
Cerebral vasospasm is a major determinant of outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Brain SPECT with 99mTc-HMPAO was obtained before and after cerebral angioplasty in 10 patients with delayed ischemia due to vasospasm. Eight patients had clinically evident neurologic improvement after the procedure. Visual interpretation and an internal-reference(More)
To investigate the influence of storage relative humidity (RH) on the aerosolisation efficiency and tribo-electrification of carrier based dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations using the next generation impactor (NGI) in vitro methodology and the electrostatic low pressure impactor (ELPI). Micronised salbutamol (d 0.5 1.48 ± 0.03 μm) was blended with 63–90(More)
BACKGROUND Although standard protocols for the study of drug delivery in the upper airways using the sub-bronchial epithelial cell line Calu-3 model, particularly that of the air-liquid interface configuration, are readily available, the model remains un-validated with respect to culture conditions, barrier integrity, mucous secretion, and transporter(More)
An atomic force microscope (AFM) colloid probe technique has been used to investigate the effect of relative humidity (RH) on the adhesion properties of pharmaceutical powder surfaces. The adhesion between a model substrate, alpha-lactose monohydrate, and model particulate drugs, salbutamol sulphate and budesonide, was investigated between RHs of 15 and(More)
Lactose dry powder inhaler (DPI) carriers, constructed of smaller sub units (composite carriers), were evaluated to assess their potential for minimising drug–carrier adhesion, variability in drug–carrier forces and influence on drug aerosol performance from carrier–drug blends. Lactose carrier particles were prepared by fusing sub units of lactose (either(More)
The deposition, dissolution and transport of salbutamol base (SB) and salbutamol sulfate (SS) inhalation powders were investigated using the Calu-3 air interface cell culture model and Franz diffusion cell. Drug uptake by cells was studied with respect to deposited dose, drug solubility and hydrophobicity. Furthermore, the role of active transport via(More)
The study investigated the role of agglomeration and the effect of fine lactose size on the dispersion of salmeterol xinafoate (SX) from SX–lactose mixtures for inhalation. Particle size distributions were characterised by Malvern Mastersizer S, Aerosizer and Spraytec, and imaging conducted by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Inter-particulate adhesion(More)