Paul M Spengler

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Clinicians who minimize the significance of emotional disorders in persons with mental retardation may be displaying the diagnostic overshadowing judgmental bias. A meta-analysis of the existing literature on this bias was conducted to determine its reliability, the size of its effect, and its potential clinical significance. Results show the effect to be(More)
The overconfidence bias occurs when clinicians overestimate the accuracy of their clinical judgments. This bias is thought to be robust leading to an almost universal recommendation by clinical judgment scholars for clinicians to temper their confidence in clinical decision making. An extension of the Meta-Analysis of Clinical Judgment (Spengler et al.,(More)
Experience is one of the most commonly studied variables in clinical judgment research. In a meta-analysis of research from 1970 to 1996 of judgments made by 4,607 participants from 74 studies, Spengler, White, Ægisdóttir, Maugherman, Anderson, et al. (2009) found an experience-accuracy fixed effect of d = .121 (95% CI [.06, .18]), indicating that with more(More)
This article aims to integrate the two separate bodies of literature in Psychotherapy Integration (PI) and the Scientist-Practitioner (S-P) model. Based on an examination and synthesis of the main ideas from the two fields, it illustrates that, although developed separately, these movements are compatible and they complement each other. After describing the(More)
This series of articles attempts to redefine and reprioritize the role of science in search for a clinically meaningful and realistic version of the scientist-practitioner (S-P) model. To this end, science is discussed as both research-driven practice and clinically meaningful research, keeping practitioners and their needs in the center of attention. In(More)
Sexual minority (SM) individuals live in a heterosexist society that denigrates their sexual orientation identity. The stigma and prejudice they regularly encounter is hypothesized to lead to their significantly increased risk for developing mental health disorders. Because of these factors, therapists should be diligent to create an affirming and(More)
Mental health professionals are increasingly aware of the need for competence in the treatment of clients with pornography-related concerns. However, while researchers have recently sought to explore efficacious treatments for pornography-related concerns, few explorations of potential clinical judgment issues have occurred. Due to the sensitive, and at(More)
In this paper, we discuss the need for medical rule outs in over 50% of DSM–5 diagnoses and the risk for mental health practitioners to engage in a clinical judgment error called psychological masquerade (Taylor, 2007). We use the specific example of thyroid dysfunction as a relevant rule out when a client presents with symptoms consistent with an affective(More)
The robustness of the diagnostic overshadowing bias was examined by (a) testing the relation of overshadowing to level of mental retardation, (b) reexamining the effect of clinical experience in a more sensitive analysis, and (c) extending previous results to rehabilitation counselors. Diagnostic overshadowing was found with individuals with an IQ of 58,(More)
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