Paul M. Schlosser

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Formaldehyde inhalation at 6 ppm and above causes nasal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in F344 rats. The quantitative implications of the rat tumors for human cancer risk are of interest, since epidemiological studies have provided only equivocal evidence that formaldehyde is a human carcinogen. Conolly et al. (Toxicol. Sci. 75, 432-447, 2003) analyzed the(More)
Formaldehyde-induced nasal squamous cell carcinomas in rats and squamous metaplasia in rats and rhesus monkeys occur in specific regions of the nose with species-specific distribution patterns. Experimental approaches addressing local differences in formaldehyde uptake patterns and dose are limited by the resolution of dissection techniques used to obtain(More)
Interspecies extrapolations of tissue dose and tumor response have been a significant source of uncertainty in formaldehyde cancer risk assessment. The ability to account for species-specific variation of dose within the nasal passages would reduce this uncertainty. Three-dimensional, anatomically realistic, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of(More)
Formaldehyde inhalation at 6 ppm and above causes nasal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in F344 rats. The human health implications of this effect are of significant interest since human exposure to environmental formaldehyde is widespread, though at lower concentrations than those that cause cancer in rats. In this article, which is part of a larger effort(More)
Benzene (C6H6) is a highly flammable, colorless liquid. Ubiquitous exposures result from its presence in gasoline vapors, cigarette smoke, and industrial processes. Benzene increases the incidence of leukemia in humans when they are exposed to high doses for extended periods; however, leukemia risks in humans at low exposures are uncertain. The(More)
Formaldehyde induced squamous-cell carcinomas in the nasal passages of F344 rats in two inhalation bioassays at exposure levels of 6 ppm and above. Increases in rates of cell proliferation were measured by T. M. Monticello and colleagues at exposure levels of 0.7 ppm and above in the same tissues from which tumors arose. A risk assessment for formaldehyde(More)
Increasing concerns that environmental contaminants may disrupt the endocrine system require development of mathematical tools to predict the potential for such compounds to significantly alter human endocrine function. The endocrine system is largely self-regulating, compensating for moderate changes in dietary phytoestrogens (e.g., in soy products) and(More)
Benzene, an important industrial solvent and constituent of unleaded gasoline, causes leukemia and aplastic anemia in humans. Mice are more sensitive than rats to benzene toxicity, though neither species has been shown to respond consistently with benzene-induced leukemia. Benzene biotransformation in liver to phenol, hydroquinone, catechol and/or(More)
The concept that the product of the concentration (C) of a substance and the length of time (t) it is administered produces a fixed level of effect for a given endpoint has been ascribed to Fritz Haber, who was a German scientist in the early 1900s. He contended that the acute lethality of war gases could be assessed by the amount of the gas in a cubic(More)
Low levels of benzene from sources including cigarette smoke and automobile emissions are ubiquitous in the environment. Since the toxicity of benzene probably results from oxidative metabolites, an understanding of the profile of biotransformation of low levels of benzene is critical in making a valid risk assessment. To that end, we have investigated(More)