Paul M. Ridker

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Atherosclerosis, formerly considered a bland lipid storage disease, actually involves an ongoing inflammatory response. Recent advances in basic science have established a fundamental role for inflammation in mediating all stages of this disease from initiation through progression and, ultimately, the thrombotic complications of atherosclerosis. These new(More)
CONTEXT Inflammation is hypothesized to play a role in development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM); however, clinical data addressing this issue are limited. OBJECTIVE To determine whether elevated levels of the inflammatory markers interleukin 6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with development of type 2 DM in healthy middle-aged(More)
BACKGROUND Increased levels of the inflammatory biomarker high-sensitivity C-reactive protein predict cardiovascular events. Since statins lower levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein as well as cholesterol, we hypothesized that people with elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels but without hyperlipidemia might benefit from statin(More)
BACKGROUND Since inflammation is believed to have a role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular events, measurement of markers of inflammation has been proposed as a method to improve the prediction of the risk of these events. METHODS We conducted a prospective, nested case-control study among 28,263 apparently healthy postmenopausal women over a mean(More)
BACKGROUND Inflammation may be important in the pathogenesis of atherothrombosis. We studied whether inflammation increases the risk of a first thrombotic event and whether treatment with aspirin decreases the risk. METHODS We measured plasma C-reactive protein, a marker for systemic inflammation, in 543 apparently healthy men participating in the(More)
Atherosclerosis is a chronic disease of the arterial wall, and a leading cause of death and loss of productive life years worldwide. Research into the disease has led to many compelling hypotheses about the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic lesion formation and of complications such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Yet, despite these advances, we still(More)
BACKGROUND Both C-reactive protein and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels are elevated in persons at risk for cardiovascular events. However, population-based data directly comparing these two biologic markers are not available. METHODS C-reactive protein and LDL cholesterol were measured at base line in 27,939 apparently healthy American(More)
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease results in >19 million deaths annually, and coronary heart disease accounts for the majority of this toll. Despite major advances in treatment of coronary heart disease patients, a large number of victims of the disease who are apparently healthy die suddenly without prior symptoms. Available screening and diagnostic(More)
BACKGROUND Interleukin-6 (IL-6) plays a central role in inflammation and tissue injury. However, epidemiological data evaluating the role of IL-6 in atherogenesis are sparse. METHODS AND RESULTS In a prospective study involving 14 916 apparently healthy men, we measured baseline plasma concentration of IL-6 in 202 participants who subsequently developed(More)
CONTEXT The association of triglycerides with incident cardiovascular disease remains controversial. Although triglyceride levels are typically obtained in the fasting state, postprandial hypertriglyceridemia may play an important role in atherosclerosis. OBJECTIVE To determine the association of triglyceride levels (fasting vs nonfasting) and risk of(More)