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It is widely held that conscious recall of past experiences involves a specific system--episodic memory. Patients with amnesia have gross impairments of episodic memory while other kinds of memory remain intact, suggesting that a separable brain system underlies episodic memory. We have used positron emission tomography (PET) to identify components of this(More)
Long-term auditory-verbal memory comprises, at a neuropsychological level, a number of distinct cognitive processes. In the present study we determined the brain systems engaged during encoding (experiment 1) and retrieval (experiment 2) of episodic auditory-verbal material. In the separate experiments, PET measurements of regional cerebral blood flow(More)
Dopaminergic neurotransmission may be involved in learning, reinforcement of behaviour, attention, and sensorimotor integration. Binding of the radioligand 11C-labelled raclopride to dopamine D2 receptors is sensitive to levels of endogenous dopamine, which can be released by pharmacological challenge. Here we use 11C-labelled raclopride and positron(More)
Much evidence suggests that lesions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) produce marked impairments in the ability of subjects to shift cognitive set, as exemplified by performance of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). However, studies with humans and experimental primates have suggested that damage to different regions of PFC induce dissociable impairments(More)
In two separate experiments positron emission tomography (PET) was used to measure changes in regional cerebral blood flow while normal subjects performed the Stroop colour word interference test, a test of selective attention. In the first experiment performance of the Stroop task was associated with activation of right orbito-frontal and bilateral(More)
We report a novel method to identify brain regions generically activated by periodic experimental design in functional magnetic resonance imaging data. This involves: 1) registering each of N individual functional magnetic resonance imaging datasets in a standard space; 2) computing the median standardised power of response to the experimental design; 3)(More)
CONTEXT A major limitation on the development of biomarkers and novel interventions for schizophrenia is that its pathogenesis is unknown. Although elevated striatal dopamine activity is thought to be fundamental to schizophrenia, it is unclear when this neurochemical abnormality develops in relation to the onset of illness and how this relates to the(More)
Schizophrenic patients experiencing passivity phenomena believe their thoughts and actions to be those of external, or alien, entities. We wished to test the hypothesis that voluntary motor action in such patients would be associated with aberrant patterns of activation within the cerebral motor system. We used H2(15)O PET to study patients while they(More)
CONTEXT Despite 25 years of structural imaging in bipolar disorder, brain regions affected in the disorder are ill defined. OBJECTIVES To use meta-analytical techniques to investigate structural brain changes in bipolar disorder and to assess the effect of medication use and demographic and clinical variables. DATA SOURCES The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and(More)
Synaptic dopamine release from embryonic nigral transplants has been monitored in the striatum of a patient with Parkinson's disease using [11C]-raclopride positron emission tomography to measure dopamine D2 receptor occupancy by the endogenous transmitter. In this patient, who had received a transplant in the right putamen 10 years earlier, grafts had(More)