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As of May 19, 2009, a total of 5,469 confirmed or probable cases of human infection with a novel influenza A (H1N1) virus had been documented in 47 states and the District of Columbia. In addition, the virus had spread to 41 countries, with a total of 4,774 cases reported in countries outside the United States. Because producing a novel influenza A (H1N1)(More)
BACKGROUND Severe illness due to 2009 pandemic A(H1N1) infection has been reported among persons who are obese or morbidly obese. We assessed whether obesity is a risk factor for hospitalization and death due to 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1), independent of chronic medical conditions considered by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) to(More)
BACKGROUND Influenza causes substantial morbidity and annual vaccination is the most important prevention strategy. Accurately measuring vaccine effectiveness (VE) is difficult. The clinical syndrome most closely associated with influenza virus infection, influenza-like illness (ILI), is not specific. In addition, laboratory confirmation is infrequently(More)
BACKGROUND Because postlicensure surveillance determined that a previous rotavirus vaccine, RotaShield, caused intussusception in 1 of every 10,000 recipients, we assessed the association of the new monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) with intussusception after routine immunization of infants in Mexico and Brazil. METHODS We used case-series and(More)
This study was undertaken to determine the relation between self-reported number of cigarettes smoked per day and urine cotinine concentration during pregnancy and to examine the relations between these two measures of tobacco exposure and birth weight. Data were obtained from the Smoking Cessation in Pregnancy project, conducted between 1987 and 1991.(More)
BACKGROUND The influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccination programme was the largest mass vaccination initiative in recent US history. Commensurate with the size and scope of the vaccination programme, a project to monitor vaccine adverse events was undertaken, the most comprehensive safety surveillance agenda in the USA to date. The adverse event(More)
We estimated the effectiveness of four monovalent pandemic influenza A (H1N1) vaccines (three unadjuvanted inactivated, one live attenuated) available in the U.S. during the pandemic. Patients with acute respiratory illness presenting to inpatient and outpatient facilities affiliated with four collaborating institutions were prospectively recruited,(More)
CONTEXT The goal of influenza vaccination programs is to reduce influenza-associated disease outcomes. Therefore, estimating the reduced burden of influenza as a result of vaccination over time and by age group would allow for a clear understanding of the value of influenza vaccines in the US, and of areas where improvements could lead to greatest benefits.(More)
This study was undertaken to determine 1) whether reducing tobacco exposure during pregnancy increases the birth weight of term infants and 2) the relative effects of early- and late-pregnancy exposure to tobacco on infant birth weight. Data were obtained from the Smoking Cessation in Pregnancy project, conducted in public clinics in three states (Colorado,(More)
OBJECTIVE Anaphylaxis after immunization, although rare, is serious and potentially life-threatening. Understanding risk factors for this reaction is therefore important. Gelatin is added to many vaccines as a heat stabilizer. Japanese researchers have demonstrated a strong association between immediate hypersensitivity reactions to measles, mumps, rubella,(More)