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BACKGROUND Domestic flies are accepted vectors of diarrhoea, but their role in trachoma transmission has never been quantified and no study has shown that fly control decreases the prevalence of trachoma. We assessed the effect of fly control on public health in a pilot study in Gambian villages. METHODS We studied two pairs of villages--one pair in the(More)
BACKGROUND Blindness and low vision are thought to be common in southern Sudan. However, the magnitude and geographical distribution are largely unknown. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of blindness and low vision, identify the main causes of blindness and low vision, and estimate targets for blindness prevention programs in Mankien payam (district),(More)
Reliable population-based prevalence data are essential for planning, monitoring and evaluating trachoma control programmes and understanding the scale of the problem, yet they are not currently available for 22 out of 56 trachoma-endemic countries. Three survey methods have been advocated for trachoma: cluster random sampling (CRS); trachoma rapid(More)
BACKGROUND Trachoma is a leading cause of preventable blindness. Reports from eye surgery camps and anecdotal data indicated that blinding trachoma is a serious cause of visual impairment in Mankien payam (district) of southern Sudan. We conducted this study to estimate the prevalence of trachoma, estimate targets for interventions, and establish a baseline(More)
Trachoma is a poorly understood immunofibrogenic disease process, initiated by Chlamydia trachomatis. Differences in conjunctival gene expression profiles between Ethiopians with trachomatous trichiasis (with [TTI] or without [TT] inflammation) and controls (C) were investigated to identify relevant host responses. Tarsal conjunctival swab samples were(More)
BACKGROUND A trachoma control programme was started in southern Sudan in 2001. We did a 3-year evaluation to quantify uptake of SAFE (surgery, antibiotics, facial cleanliness, and environmental change) interventions, and to assess the prevalence of active trachoma and unclean faces. METHODS Cross-sectional surveys, including clinical assessment of(More)
BACKGROUND Undernutrition is an important risk factor for childhood mortality, and remains a major problem facing many developing countries. Millennium Development Goal 1 calls for a reduction in underweight children, implemented through a variety of interventions. To adequately judge the impact of these interventions, it is important to know the(More)
BACKGROUND In 2005, a nationwide survey estimated that 6.5% of households in Ethiopia owned an insecticide-treated net (ITN), 17% of households had been sprayed with insecticide, and 4% of children under five years of age with a fever were taking an anti-malarial drug. Similar to other sub-Saharan African countries scaling-up malaria interventions, the(More)
BACKGROUND Eye-seeking flies have received much attention as possible trachoma vectors, but this remains unproved. We aimed to assess the role of eye-seeking flies as vectors of trachoma and to test provision of simple pit latrines, without additional health education, as a sustainable method of fly control. METHODS In a community-based,(More)
We assessed malaria infection in relation to age, altitude, rainfall, socio-economic factors and coverage of control measures in a representative sample of 11437 people in Amhara, Oromia and SNNP regions of Ethiopia in December 2006-January 2007. Surveys were conducted in 224 randomly selected clusters of 25 households (overall sample of 27884 people in(More)