Paul M. Emerson

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In most resource-poor settings, malaria is usually diagnosed based on clinical signs and symptoms and not by detection of parasites in the blood using microscopy or rapid diagnostic tests (RDT). In population-based malaria surveys, accurate diagnosis is important: microscopy provides the gold standard, whilst RDTs allow immediate findings and treatment. The(More)
In 2005, a nationwide survey estimated that 6.5% of households in Ethiopia owned an insecticide-treated net (ITN), 17% of households had been sprayed with insecticide, and 4% of children under five years of age with a fever were taking an anti-malarial drug. Similar to other sub-Saharan African countries scaling-up malaria interventions, the Government of(More)
Sometimes, valuable lessons from history are forgotten, remain unknown, or worse, are ignored. This article reminds us of the pioneering work of Angelo Celli at the end of the 19th century, who demonstrated that people could be protected from malaria by screening their homes against mosquitoes. Since then, public health scientists have continued to show(More)
Trachoma is a poorly understood immunofibrogenic disease process, initiated by Chlamydia trachomatis. Differences in conjunctival gene expression profiles between Ethiopians with trachomatous trichiasis (with [TTI] or without [TT] inflammation) and controls (C) were investigated to identify relevant host responses. Tarsal conjunctival swab samples were(More)
INTRODUCTION Trachoma programs use mass distributions of oral azithromycin to treat the ocular strains of Chlamydia trachomatis that cause the disease. There is debate whether infection can be eradicated or only controlled. Mass antibiotic administrations clearly reduce the prevalence of chlamydia in endemic communities. However, perfect coverage is(More)
House design may affect an individual's exposure to malaria parasites, and hence to disease. We conducted a randomized-controlled study using experimental huts in rural Gambia, to determine whether installing a ceiling or closing the eaves could protect people from malaria mosquitoes. Five treatments were tested against a control hut: plywood ceiling;(More)
Reliable population-based prevalence data are essential for planning, monitoring and evaluating trachoma control programmes and understanding the scale of the problem, yet they are not currently available for 22 out of 56 trachoma-endemic countries. Three survey methods have been advocated for trachoma: cluster random sampling (CRS); trachoma rapid(More)
We assessed malaria infection in relation to age, altitude, rainfall, socio-economic factors and coverage of control measures in a representative sample of 11437 people in Amhara, Oromia and SNNP regions of Ethiopia in December 2006-January 2007. Surveys were conducted in 224 randomly selected clusters of 25 households (overall sample of 27884 people in(More)
Recent evidence suggests that eye-seeking flies are important trachoma vectors. We conducted a series of investigations to identify which species of synanthropic flies are potential vector(s) of this blinding disease in The Gambia. Several species of fly were caught in fish-baited attractant traps placed in villages throughout the year (1997/98) but only 2(More)
BACKGROUND Malaria transmission in Ethiopia is unstable and seasonal, with the majority of the country's population living in malaria-prone areas. Results from DHS 2005 indicate that the coverage of key malaria interventions was low. The government of Ethiopia has set the national goal of full population coverage with a mean of 2 long-lasting insecticidal(More)